Presence of tophi is a predictive factor of arterial stiffness in patients with gout
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The objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of tophi could predict an increase in arterial stiffness. Between June 2017 and June 2018, the augmentation index (AI) was measured using SphygmoCor® for patients with gout who visited the Jeju National University Hospital in South Korea. Patients were divided into the following groups: group with tophi and group without tophi. Medical records, laboratory data, and AI were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and twenty patients with gout or participated in the study, with most (96.7%) of the patients being male. The mean duration of the disease was 7.0 years. At the time of the examination, 99 patients (82.5%) were treated with a uric acid-lowering agent. Of the total patients, 24 (19.7%) had tophi. Patients with tophi were significantly older (60.2 ± 11.6 years vs. 53.8 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.031), had longer disease duration (13.0 ± 6.5 years vs 5.5 ± 5.4 years, p < 0.001), and higher AI@75 (28.7 ± 7.8 vs 20.9 ± 10.0, p = 0.001) than those without tophi. In the multiple linear regression analysis, tophi was shown to be a significant predictor of high AI (p = 0.040). The presence of tophi is a predictor of increased arterial stiffness in patients with gout. Therefore, more strict control of cardiovascular disease risk factors is needed in the treatment of patients with tophi.
KeywordsGout Uric acid Arterial stiffness
Conceptualization: WSJ and JHC. Data curation: WSJ. Formal analysis: WSJ, JHC, and JGL. Investigation: WSJ and JHC. Methodology: WSJ and JHC. Resources: JHC. Supervision: JHC, SJJ, and JSK. Writing—original draft: WSJ. Writing—review and editing: WSJ, JHC, SJJ, and JSK.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
WooSeong Jeong, Seung-Jae Joo, Jinsoek Kim, Jae-Geun Lee, and Joon Hyouk Choi declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This hospital-based observational study was approved by the ethical committee of the institutional review board of Jeju National University Hospital, and all participants provided informed and written consent.
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