Centromeric non-coding RNA as a hidden epigenetic factor of the point centromere
- 249 Downloads
To ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division, the centromere in many organisms is transcribed to produce a low level of long non-coding RNA to regulate the activity of the kinetochore. In the budding yeast point centromere, our recent work has shown that the level of centromeric RNAs (cenRNAs) is tightly regulated and repressed by the kinetochore protein Cbf1 and histone H2A variant H2A.ZHtz1, and de-repressed during S phase of the cell cycle. Too little or too much cenRNAs will disrupt centromere activity. Here, we discuss the current advance in the understanding of the action and regulation of cenRNAs at the point centromere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We further show that budding yeast cenRNAs are cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) that can be degraded by the nuclear RNA decay pathway. CenRNA provides an example that even CUTs, when present at the right time with the right level, can serve important cellular functions.
KeywordsCentromeric transcription Long non-coding RNA Centromere-binding factor Cbf1 Histone H2A variant Htz1 Centromeric histone variant CENP-A Chromosome instability
This research was funded by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council General Research Fund (Project Number: 17113418) and Collaborative Research Fund (Project Number: C7058-18GF), and the University of Hong Kong Seed Funds for Basic Research (Project Numbers: 201311159169 and 201509159021).
- Baker RE, Fitzgerald-Hayes M, O’Brien TC (1989) Purification of the yeast centromere binding protein CP1 and a mutational analysis of its binding site. J Biol Chem 264:10843–10850Google Scholar
- Bergmann JH, Jakubsche JN, Martins NM, Kagansky A, Nakano M, Kimura H, Kelly DA, Turner BM, Masumoto H, Larionov V, Earnshaw WC (2012) Epigenetic engineering: histone H3K9 acetylation is compatible with kinetochore structure and function. J Cell Sci 125:411–421. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.090639 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen CC, Bowers S, Lipinszki Z, Palladino J, Trusiak S, Bettini E, Rosin L, Przewloka MR, Glover DM, O’Neill RJ, Mellone BG (2015) Establishment of centromeric chromatin by the CENP-A assembly factor CAL1 requires FACT-mediated transcription. Dev Cell 34:73–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2015.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jin QW, Fuchs J, Loidl J (2000) Centromere clustering is a major determinant of yeast interphase nuclear organization. J Cell Sci 113(Pt 11):1903–1912Google Scholar
- Wong LH, Brettingham-Moore KH, Chan L, Quach JM, Anderson MA, Northrop EL, Hannan R, Saffery R, Shaw ML, Williams E, Choo KH (2007) Centromere RNA is a key component for the assembly of nucleoproteins at the nucleolus and centromere. Genome Res 17:1146–1160. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.6022807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wyers F, Rougemaille M, Badis G, Rousselle JC, Dufour ME, Boulay J, Regnault B, Devaux F, Namane A, Seraphin B, Libri D, Jacquier A (2005) Cryptic pol II transcripts are degraded by a nuclear quality control pathway involving a new poly(A) polymerase. Cell 121:725–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar