Genetic mechanisms of arsenic detoxification and metabolism in bacteria
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Arsenic, distributed pervasively in the natural environment, is an extremely toxic substance which can severely impair the normal functions of living cells. Research on the genetic mechanisms of arsenic metabolism is of great importance for remediating arsenic-contaminated environments. Many organisms, including bacteria, have developed various strategies to tolerate arsenic, by either detoxifying this harmful element or utilizing it for energy generation. This review summarizes arsenic detoxification as well as arsenic respiratory metabolic pathways in bacteria and discusses novel arsenic resistance pathways in various bacterial strains. This knowledge provides insights into the mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation in bacteria. Multiple detoxification strategies among bacteria imply possible functional relationships among different arsenic detoxification/metabolism pathways. In addition, this review sheds light on the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated environments and prevention of antibiotic resistance.
KeywordsArsenic resistance Arsenic detoxification Arsenic metabolism Arsenic biotransformation Bacteria
This work was supported by Grants from the National Science Foundation of China (31720103906, 31520103902, 31670072, 31670086, and 31170070).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
This work does not contain any research with human participants and/or animals.
Informed consent was obtained from all the authors included in the study.
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