Polymerization of 1,3-butadiene using neodymium versatate: optimization of NdV3/TEAL/EASC molar ratios via response surface methodology (RSM)

  • Ahmad-ali Shokri
  • Saeid TalebiEmail author
  • Mehdi Salami-KalajahiEmail author
Original Paper


Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design was used to optimize and analyze the molar ratio of catalyst components for polymerization of 1,3-butadiene (Bd) using Ziegler–Natta catalyst. In this research work, the catalyst component includes neodymium versatate (NdV3) as catalyst, triethylaluminum as cocatalyst or activator and ethylaluminum sesquichloride as chloride donor. The symbols [Nd], [Al], [Cl] and [Bd] were used for catalyst, cocatalyst, donor and monomer concentration, respectively. The interaction between three important and critical variables was studied and modeled. For this purpose, independent variables are [Bd]/[Nd], [Al]/[Nd] and [Cl]/[Nd] molar ratios at three levels to optimize the dependent or response ones which are monomer conversion, molecular weight and cis content of resulting polymer. Quadratic models were achieved and developed to correlate the catalyst components’ molar ratio with dependent variables. The optimum conditions predicted via RSM were in good agreement with experimental data obtained from the experimental runs. The statistical analysis of the results showed that [Cl]/[Nd] molar ratio had a significant effect on monomer conversion and cis content. Furthermore, the catalyst components’ molar ratio to reach the desirable response parameters is forecasted and experimentally verified. The optimum catalyst components’ molar ratio derived via RSM is as follows: [Bd]/[Nd] = 5363.0, [Al]/[Nd] = 27.2 and [Cl]/[Nd] = 2.2.


Polymerization Ziegler–Natta Polybutadiene Neodymium versatate Response surface methodology 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Polymer EngineeringSahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran
  2. 2.Institute of Polymeric MaterialsSahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran

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