Advertisement

Synthesis of graphene oxide doped poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) [GO@p(AMPS)] composite hydrogel with pseudo-plastic thixotropic behavior

  • Luqman Ali ShahEmail author
  • Tanzil Ur Rehman
  • Mansoor Khan
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate rheology and rheological models to elucidate the structural characteristics of graphene oxide doped poly(2-acryloamido-2-methyl propyl sulfonic acid) [GO@p(AMPS)] composite hydrogel. The graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized via modified Hammers method and characterized by X-ray diffraction. This GO-hydrogels were synthesized in GO dispersed medium by adding AMPS as a monomer via free radical addition polymerization. The material was characterized by SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy and Rheometry. The flow curve and flow sweep study of the GO@p(AMPS) hydrogel indicates that the material has pseudo-plastic thixotropic behavior. The finding from the study of storage (G′) and loss (G″) moduli shows that the GO@p(AMPS) behave elastically, semisolid and pseudo-plastic in their nature. The yield stress data indicate that the materials need an external force (activation energy) to break the internal network of the gel. Creep-recovery tests were applied which show that the gels have the ability to recover the network after removal of the external stress. The flow characteristics of the gel were studied by various rheological models, the data were best fitted in the Bingham modified model. Further the damping factor (tan δ) is near to 0.3, which shows the improvement of the damping of the materials due to the interlocking and penetration of GO particles within the gel. Thus, the rheological analysis show that these materials can be applied for complex cosmetics, controlled drug loading and release due to the presence of GO as a drugs binding effector in GO@p(AMPS) composites.

Keywords

Rheology Composite hydrogel Visco-elasticity Yield stress Creep-recovery test 

Notes

Acknowledgements

All the authors are highly thankful to Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan for financial support under grant No: 21-718/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2016 and 7309/NRPU/R&D/HEC/2017-18 to the polymer research group of Dr. Luqman Ali Shah.

References

  1. 1.
    Bhuniya SP, Rahman S, Satyanand AJ, Gharia MM, Dave AM (2003) Novel route to synthesis of allyl starch and biodegradable hydrogel by copolymerizing allyl-modified starch with methacrylic acid and acrylamide. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 41(11):1650–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Qiu Y, Park K (2001) Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 53(3):321–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosello M, Sur S, Barbet B, Rothstein JP (2019) Dripping-onto-substrate capillary breakup extensional rheometry of low-viscosity printing inks. J Non Newton Fluid Mech 266:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hao W, Liu Y, Zhou H, Chen H, Fang D (2018) Preparation and characterization of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites. Polym Test 65:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jyoti BV, Baek SW (2015) Formulation and comparative study of rheological properties of loaded and unloaded ethanol-based gel propellants. J Energ Mater 33(2):125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tabilo-Munizaga G, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2005) Rheology for the food industry. J Food Eng 67(1–2):147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang W, Zhong Y, Feng P, Gao C, Peng S, Zhao Z, Shuai C (2019) Disperse magnetic sources constructed with functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles in poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds. Polym Test 76:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature (London) 442:282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mensah B, Gupta KC, Kang G, Lee H, Nah C (2019) A comparative study on vulcanization behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber reinforced with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide as fillers. Polym Test 76:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang J, Liu C, Shuai Y, Cui X, Nie L (2014) Controlled release of anticancer drug using graphene oxide as a drug-binding effector in konjac glucomannan/sodium alginate hydrogels. Colloids Surf B 113:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krishnaiah Y, Satyanarayana V, Kumar BD, Karthikeyan R (2002) In vitro drug release studies on guar gum-based colon targeted oral drug delivery systems of 5-fluorouracil. Eur J Pharm Sci 16(3):185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gupta K, Kumar MR (2000) Drug release behavior of beads and microgranules of chitosan. Biomaterials 21(11):1115–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takka S, Acarturk F (1999) Calcium alginate microparticles for oral administration: I: effect of sodium alginate type on drug release and drug entrapment efficiency. J Microencapsul 16(3):275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yuan Q, Shah J, Hein S, Misra R (2010) Controlled and extended drug release behavior of chitosan-based nanoparticle carrier. Acta Biomater 6(3):1140–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim J, Cote LJ, Kim F, Yuan W, Shull KR, Huang J (2010) Graphene oxide sheets at interfaces. J Am Chem Soc 132(23):8180–8186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Becerril HA, Mao J, Liu Z, Stoltenberg RM, Bao Z, Chen Y (2008) Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors. ACS Nano 2(3):463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang X, Zhang X, Liu Z, Ma Y, Huang Y, Chen Y (2008) High-efficiency loading and controlled release of doxorubicin hydrochloride on graphene oxide. J Phys Chem C 112(45):17554–17558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Farahmand S, Tajerzadeh H, Farboud E (2006) Formulation and evaluation of a vitamin C multiple emulsion. Pharm Dev Technol 11(2):255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kogan A, Garti N (2006) Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 123:369–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang C, Easteal AJ (2007) Thermoanalytical, spectroscopic, and morphological study of poly (ethylene glycol)/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating network gels. J Appl Polym Sci 104(3):1723–1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yetimoğlu EK, Kahraman M, Ercan Ö, Akdemir Z, Apohan NK (2007) N-vinylpyrrolidone/acrylic acid/2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid based hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and their application in the removal of heavy metals. React Funct Polym 67(5):451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhu L, Zhang L, Tang Y (2012) Synthesis of montmorillonite/poly (acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) superabsorbent composite and the study of its adsorption. Bull Korean Chem Soc 33(5):1669–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tan S, Jiang T, Ebrahimi A, Langrish T (2018) Effect of spray-drying temperature on the formation of flower-like lactose for griseofulvin loading. Eur J Pharm Sci 111:534–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pathak Y, Labhashetwar V (1993) Evaluation of drug delivery systems by electron microscopy techniques. Cells Mater 3(1):5Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Q, Fang F, Zhao X, Li Y, Zhu M, Chen D (2008) Use of dynamic rheological behavior to estimate the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in carbon nanotube/polymer composites. J Phys Chem B 112(40):12606–12611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Di Giuseppe E, Davaille A, Mittelstaedt E, François M (2012) Rheological and mechanical properties of silica colloids: from Newtonian liquid to brittle behaviour. Rheol Acta 51(5):451–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dorigato A, Pegoretti A, Penati A (2010) Linear low-density polyethylene/silica micro-and nanocomposites: dynamic rheological measurements and modelling. Express Polym Lett 4(2):115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Su C, Zong D, Xu L, Zhang C (2014) Dynamic mechanical properties of semi-interpenetrating polymer network-based on nitrile rubber and poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate). J Appl Polym Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40217 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mezger TG (2006) The rheology handbook: for users of rotational and oscillatory rheometers. Vincentz Network GmbH & Co KG, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Satish C, Satish K, Shivakumar H (2006) Hydrogels as controlled drug delivery systems: synthesis, crosslinking, water and drug transport mechanism. Indian J Pharm Sci 68(2):133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymer Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical ChemistryUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations