Characterization of expeditious Leptospira bacteria detection using PANI–Fe–Ni nanocomposite thin film

  • Jamal Jurait
  • Huda AbdullahEmail author
  • Iskandar Yahya
  • Siti Khairani Bejo
  • Nur Jannah Azman
Original Paper


This study was done to detect the Leptospira bacteria in water using polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite thin films doped with Fe–Ni using the solgel method. In this study, the electrode sensors were immersed in the Leptospira solution. The presence of pathogenic Leptospira was measured and analyzed using the current, impedance, and energy performance on current–voltage (IV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The morphologies and elementary of the thin films were characterized using FESEM, TEM, AFM, EDX, and mapping. Besides that, selectivity tests were conducted to distinguish the existence of Leptospira, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Based on the result, the presence of pathogenic Leptospira bacteria in water was successfully detected by the PANI–Fe–Ni nanocomposite thin films. The PANI–Fe0.8–Ni0.2 thin films have shown higher sensitivity toward pathogenic Leptospira detection. Furthermore, the FESEM and EDX analyses revealed the interaction between the microbe and thin surface by showing the irregularity of thin films of nanoparticles that range from 80 to 120 nm in size and the presence of metal in substrates. Moreover, the AFM images showed the specific morphology films’ structure for Leptospira detection. Therefore, these results affirmed the potentials of polyaniline–Fe–Ni nanocomposite thin films in detecting pathogenic Leptospira for a concentration of 1 × 108 CFU mL−1 in water.


Pathogenic Leptospira Polyaniline IV EIS and CV measurement Thin film 



This project was supported by Dana Impak Perdana (DIP-2016-021) and Photonic Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, and Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamal Jurait
    • 1
  • Huda Abdullah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Iskandar Yahya
    • 1
  • Siti Khairani Bejo
    • 2
  • Nur Jannah Azman
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre of Advanced Electronic and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Applied ScienceUniversity Teknology MARA, Negeri Sembilan BranchKuala PilahMalaysia

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