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Binary mixtures of anionic double-chain sulfonate emulsifiers in VCM emulsion polymerization with high solid content: effect of emulsifier’s combination ratio and concentration

  • Aliasghar Mahdavi Akerdi
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh HaghighiEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Binary mixtures of anionic double-chain sulfonate emulsifiers, sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate and sodium pentadecan-sulfonate (SPS) were employed in batch reactor at different combination ratios and concentration for vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization. Reaction performances were evaluated by monitoring conversion rate and molecular weight by K-value parameter. Particle size and its distribution were investigated as a criterion for particle nucleation and the growing process by calculating the number of latex particles and the average number of growing chains per particle, respectively. The final latexes were evaluated by means of the coarse matter content as a qualitative character of the latex. The results showed that the overall reaction rate increases by high amount of SPS. Also, by increasing SPS content in binary mixture, coarse particle formation decreased and latex stability and particle size distribution increased. Furthermore, it has been found that the particle size was nonlinearly dependent on the combined ratio and amount of emulsifier and has shown a minimum within the scope of the study.

Keywords

Emulsion polymerization Poly (vinyl chloride) Double-chain emulsifier Binary mixtures Combination ratio Sodium pentadecan-sulfonate Sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate 

List of symbols

Amin

Minimum area per head group

C

Concentration of PVC in cyclohexanone for K-value determination

CE

Concentration of emulsifier in water

CMCL

First minimum of CMC region

CMCH

First maximum of CMC region

CMP

Overall monomer concentration in the polymer particles at interval II

ĆMP

Overall monomer concentration in the polymer particles at interval III

CM,0

Initial monomer concentration (moles per unit volume of the continuous phase)

di

Diameter of particle with index i

\(\bar{d}_{\text{pswol}}\)

Particles diameter swelled with monomer

\(\bar{d}_{\text{v}}\)

Volume average particle diameter

\(\bar{d}_{\text{w}}\)

Weight average particle diameter

EM

Weight ratio of emulsifier to VCM in percentage

Kp

Coefficient of propagation rate

K-value

A measure of molecular weight for PVC

MM

Molecular weight of the monomer

M/W

Weight ratio of monomer to water

n

Number of species formed in solution considering the dissociation per monomer

\(\bar{n}\)

Average number of growing chain per particle

ni

Number of particles with diameter di

Np

Number of latex particles per unit volume of the aqueous phase

Npm

Number of latex particles per unit mass of the polymer

Nav

Avogadro’s number

P

Pressure

PDI

Particle diameter polydispersity index

P/W

Weight ratio of polymer to water

R

Gas constant

Rp

Polymerization rate per unit volume of the continuous phase

SC

Solid content

SC (initial)

Solid content at the beginning of reaction

SC (final)

Solid content at the end of reaction

SC (t)

Solid content at time t

t0

Efflux time of the pure solvent

tE

Efflux time of the solution

T

Temperature

Xc

Critical conversion

Xov(t)

Overall mass conversion at time t

Greek symbols

κ

Conductivity

Γmax

Surface excess concentration

γ

Surface tension

ρP

Average density of the polymer

ρW

Density of water

ρm

Density of monomer

θ(t)

Overall molar conversion at time t

Subscripts and superscripts

E

Emulsifier

M

Monomer

p

Polymer

w

Water

Abbreviations

CMC

Critical micelle concentration

DM water

Demineralized water

E-PVC

PVC produced by emulsion polymerization

K-value

A measure of molecular weight for PVC

PSD

Particle size distribution

PVC

Poly (vinyl chloride)

SDBS

Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate

SDIDS

Sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SPS

Sodium pentadecan-sulfonate

VCM

Vinyl chloride monomer

VR

Viscosity ratio

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Arvand Petrochemical Company, under Project No. 0873229604, and Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI) (Project No. 43751113). The authors would like to thank Dr. A. Nodehi from the department of polymerization engineering, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI) for his helpful discussions and APC colleagues A. Alemohammad and J. Sharifi for their sincere aid.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aliasghar Mahdavi Akerdi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh Haghighi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Polymerization EngineeringIran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Research and TechnologyArvand Petrochemical Company (APC)MahshahrIran

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