Binary mixtures of anionic double-chain sulfonate emulsifiers in VCM emulsion polymerization with high solid content: effect of emulsifier’s combination ratio and concentration

  • Aliasghar Mahdavi Akerdi
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh HaghighiEmail author
Original Paper


Binary mixtures of anionic double-chain sulfonate emulsifiers, sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate and sodium pentadecan-sulfonate (SPS) were employed in batch reactor at different combination ratios and concentration for vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization. Reaction performances were evaluated by monitoring conversion rate and molecular weight by K-value parameter. Particle size and its distribution were investigated as a criterion for particle nucleation and the growing process by calculating the number of latex particles and the average number of growing chains per particle, respectively. The final latexes were evaluated by means of the coarse matter content as a qualitative character of the latex. The results showed that the overall reaction rate increases by high amount of SPS. Also, by increasing SPS content in binary mixture, coarse particle formation decreased and latex stability and particle size distribution increased. Furthermore, it has been found that the particle size was nonlinearly dependent on the combined ratio and amount of emulsifier and has shown a minimum within the scope of the study.


Emulsion polymerization Poly (vinyl chloride) Double-chain emulsifier Binary mixtures Combination ratio Sodium pentadecan-sulfonate Sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate 

List of symbols


Minimum area per head group


Concentration of PVC in cyclohexanone for K-value determination


Concentration of emulsifier in water


First minimum of CMC region


First maximum of CMC region


Overall monomer concentration in the polymer particles at interval II


Overall monomer concentration in the polymer particles at interval III


Initial monomer concentration (moles per unit volume of the continuous phase)


Diameter of particle with index i


Particles diameter swelled with monomer


Volume average particle diameter


Weight average particle diameter


Weight ratio of emulsifier to VCM in percentage


Coefficient of propagation rate


A measure of molecular weight for PVC


Molecular weight of the monomer


Weight ratio of monomer to water


Number of species formed in solution considering the dissociation per monomer


Average number of growing chain per particle


Number of particles with diameter di


Number of latex particles per unit volume of the aqueous phase


Number of latex particles per unit mass of the polymer


Avogadro’s number




Particle diameter polydispersity index


Weight ratio of polymer to water


Gas constant


Polymerization rate per unit volume of the continuous phase


Solid content

SC (initial)

Solid content at the beginning of reaction

SC (final)

Solid content at the end of reaction

SC (t)

Solid content at time t


Efflux time of the pure solvent


Efflux time of the solution




Critical conversion


Overall mass conversion at time t

Greek symbols




Surface excess concentration


Surface tension


Average density of the polymer


Density of water


Density of monomer


Overall molar conversion at time t

Subscripts and superscripts











Critical micelle concentration

DM water

Demineralized water


PVC produced by emulsion polymerization


A measure of molecular weight for PVC


Particle size distribution


Poly (vinyl chloride)


Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate


Sodium di-isodecyl sulfosuccinate


Sodium dodecyl sulfate


Scanning electron microscopy


Sodium pentadecan-sulfonate


Vinyl chloride monomer


Viscosity ratio



This work was supported by Arvand Petrochemical Company, under Project No. 0873229604, and Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI) (Project No. 43751113). The authors would like to thank Dr. A. Nodehi from the department of polymerization engineering, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI) for his helpful discussions and APC colleagues A. Alemohammad and J. Sharifi for their sincere aid.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aliasghar Mahdavi Akerdi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh Haghighi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Polymerization EngineeringIran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Research and TechnologyArvand Petrochemical Company (APC)MahshahrIran

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