Advertisement

Preparation of new PVC composite using green reduced graphene oxide and its effects in thermal and mechanical properties

  • Ferda MindivanEmail author
  • Meryem Göktaş
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

In the present study, it was focused on developing mechanically stronger and thermally more stable polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites by using green reduced graphene oxide (GRGO) filler to strengthen the negative features of PVC. For this purpose, GRGO reduced by vitamin C (ascorbic acid) with antibacterial properties was selected as filler. The PVC/GRGO composites were produced via colloidal blending method at different amounts of GRGO in PVC matrix (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1% by weight), while pure PVC was also produced for comparison. The XRD and FTIR results showed that GRGO incorporated in the polymer matrix; this finding was also evident in SEM analysis. TGA and DSC analyses showed that the composite with 1% loading content of GRGO provided an important improvement on the thermal stability. The tensile strength and hardness of the composite having 0.1% GRGO increased by 42% and 98%, respectively. SEM image of PVC/GRGO-0.1 composite showed the galleries of GRGO filled with PVC. As a consequence, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC can be altered by changing loading content of GRGO. Moreover, the GRGO may be a good candidate for substitution of harmful fillers for PVC-based products.

Keywords

Green reduced graphene oxide PVC Composite Thermal properties Mechanical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the financial support of the research foundation (Project No: 2015-02.BSEU.07-01) of Bilecik Seyh Edebali University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang K, He Y, Song X, Cui X (2015) Effects of the metakaolin-based geopolymer on high-temperature performances of geopolymer/PVC composite materials. Appl Clay Sci 114:586–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dan-asabe B (2016) Thermo-mechanical characterization of banana particulate reinforced PVC composite as piping material. JKSUES 223:1–9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mallakpour S, Darvishzadeh M (2018) Nanocomposite materials based on poly(vinyl chloride) and bovine serum albumin modified ZnO through ultrasonic irradiation as a green technique: optical, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties. Ultrason Sonochem 41:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suzuki AH, Botelho BG, Oliveira LS, Franca AS (2018) Sustainable synthesis of epoxidized waste cooking oil and its application as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride films. Eur Polym J 99:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chiellini F, Ferri M, Morelli A, Dipaola L, Latini G (2013) Perspectives on alternatives to phthalate plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) in medical devices applications. Prog Polym Sci 38:1047–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fang Y, Wang Q, Guo C, Song Y, Cooper PA (2013) Effect of zinc borate and wood flour on thermal degradation and fire retardancy of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites. J Anal Appl Pyrol 100:230–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen X, Li C, Zhang L, Xu S, Zhou Q, Zhu Y, Qu X (2004) Main factors in preparation of antibacterial particles/PVC composite. China Part 2(5):226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Janajreh I, Alshrah M, Zamzam S (2015) Mechanical recycling of PVC plastic waste streams from cableindustry: a case study. Sustain Cities Soc 18:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hakkarainen M (2003) New PVC materials for medical applications—the release profile of PVC/polycaprolactone–polycarbonate aged in aqueous environments. Polym Degrad Stab 80:451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deshmukh K, Khatake SM, Joshi GM (2013) Surface properties of graphene oxide reinforced polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites. J Polym Res 20(286):1–11Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu J, Jia X, Li C, Ma Z, Zhang G, Sheng W, Zhang X, Wei Z (2014) Effect of interfacial interaction between graphene oxide derivatives and poly(vinyl chloride) upon the mechanical properties of their nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 49:2943–2951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brostow W, Lu X, Osmanson AT (2018) Nontoxic bio-plasticizers for PVC as replacements for conventional toxic plasticizers. Polym Test 69:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arrieta MP, Samper MD, Jiménez-López M, Aldas M, López J (2017) Combined effect of linseed oil and gum rosin as natural additives for PVC. Ind Crops Prod 99:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mindivan F (2015) The synthesis, thermal and structural characterization of polyvinylchloride/graphene oxide (PVC/GO) composites. Mater Sci Non-Equilib Phase Transform 3:33–36Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li J, Miao D, Yang R, Qu L, Harrington PB (2014) Synthesis of poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) nanocomposite and its application in electrochemical oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Electrochim Acta 125:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuila T, Khanra P, Mishra AK, Kim NH, Lee JH (2012) Functionalized-graphene/ethylene vinyl acetate co-polymer composites for improved mechanical and thermal properties. Polym Testing 31:282–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mindivan F (2017) Effect of various initial concentrations of CTAB on the noncovalent modified graphene oxide (MGNO) structure and thermal stability. Mater Testing 9(59):729–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim F, Cote LJ, Huang J (2010) Graphene oxide: surface activity and two-dimensional assembly. Adv Mater 22:1954–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Veerapandian M, Lee M-H, Krishnamoorthy K, Yun K (2012) Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of functionalized graphene oxide. Carbon 50:4228–4238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park S, An J, Jung I, Piner RD, An SJ, Li X, Velamakanni A, Ruoff RS (2009) Colloidal suspensions of highly reduced graphene oxide in a wide variety of organic solvents. Nano Lett 9(4):1593–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh V, Joung D, Lei Z, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56:1178–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jin Y, Huang S, Zhang M, Jia M, Hu D (2013) Green and efficient method to produce graphene for electrochemical capacitors from graphene oxide using sodium carbonate as a reducing agent. Appl Surf Sci 268:541–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sandhya PK, Jose J, Sreekala MS, Padmanabhan M, Kalarikkal N (2018) Reduced graphene oxide and ZnO decorated graphene for biomedical applications. Ceram Int 44:15092–15098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maddinedi SB, Sonamuthu J, Suzuk Yıldız S, Han G, Cai Y, Gao J, Ni Q, Yao J (2018) Silk sericin induced fabrication of reduced graphene oxide and its in vitro cytotoxicity, photothermal evaluation. J Photochem Photobiol B 186:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hu W, Peng C, Luo W, Lv M, Li X, Li D, Huang Q, Fan C (2010) Graphene-based antibacterial paper. ACS Nano 4:4317–4323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nanda SS, Yi DK, Kim K (2016) Study of antibacterial mechanism of graphene oxide using Raman spectroscopy. Sci Rep 6:28443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu S, Zeng TH, Hofmann M, Burcombe E, Wei J, Jiang R, Kong JC, Chen Y (2011) Antibacterial activity of graphite, graphite oxide, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide: membrane and oxidative stress. ACS Nano 5:6971–6980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuila T, Bose S, Khanra P, Mishra AK, Kim NH, Lee JH (2012) A green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide by wild carrot root. Carbon 50:914–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thakur S, Karak N (2012) Green reduction of graphene oxide by aqueous phytoextracts. Carbon 50:5331–5339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhu C, Guo S, Fang Y, Dong S (2010) Reducing sugar: new functional molecules for the green synthesis of graphene nanosheets. J Am Chem Soc 4:2429–2437Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tran DNH, Kabiri S, Losic D (2014) A green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets using non-aromatic amino acids. Carbon 76:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu Y, Zhang Y, Ma G, Wang Z, Liu K, Liu H (2013) Ethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole composite for supercapacitor. Electrochim Acta 88:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kamisan AI, Kamisan AS, Md Ali R, Tunku Kudin TI, Hassan OH, Halim NA, Yahya MZA (2015) Synthesis of graphene via green reduction of graphene oxide with simple sugars. Adv Mat Res 1107:542–546Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang Y, Shi Z, Yin J (2011) Facile Synthesis of soluble graphene via a green reduction of graphene oxide in tea solution and its biocomposites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khosroshahi Z, Kharaziha M, Karimzadeh F, Allafchian A (2018) Green reduction of graphene oxide by ascorbic acid. AIP Conf Proc 1920:020009-1–020009-7Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mindivan F, Göktaş M (2018) Green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGNO)/polyvinylchloride (PVC) composites and their structural characterization. Mater Res Forum LLC 8:143–151Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fernandez-Merino MJ, Guardia L, Paredes JI, Villar-Rodil S, Solis-Fernandez P, Martinez-Alonso A, Tascon JMD (2010) Vitamin C is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. J Phys Chem C 114:6426–6432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guo Y, Sun X, Liu Y, Wang W, Qiu H, Gao J (2012) One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation. Carbon 50:2513–2523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yassin AY, Mohamed AR, Abdelrazek EM, Morsi MA, Abdelghany AM (2018) Structural investigation and enhancement of optical, electrical and thermal properties of poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-2-hydroxypropyl acrylate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites. J Mater Res Technol ın pressGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yassin AY, Mohamed AR, Abdelghany AM, Abdelrazek EM (2018) Enhancement of dielectric properties and AC electrical conductivity of nanocomposite using poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-2-hydroxypropyl acrylate) filled with graphene oxide. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 29(18):15931–15945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hummers WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 6(80):1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    ASTM D 3822 (1997) Standard test method for tensile properties of single textile fibers. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Szabó T, Berkesi O, Dékány I (2005) DRIFT study of deuterium-exchanged graphite oxide. Carbon 43:3181–3194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang G, Wang B, Park J, Yang J, Shen X, Yao J (2009) Synthesis of enhanced hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphene oxide nanosheets by a solvothermal method. Carbon 47:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sun X, Liu Z, Welsher K, Robinson JT, Goodwin A, Zaric S, Dai H (2008) Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res 1:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pham TA, Choi BC, Jeong YT (2010) Facile covalent immobilization of cadmium sulfide quantum dots on graphene oxide nanosheets: preparation, characterization, and optical properties. Nanotechnology 21:465603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang T, Zhang D (2011) Aqueous colloids of graphene oxide nanosheets by exfoliation of graphite oxide without ultrasonication. Bull Mater Sci 34(1):25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ramesh S, Chai MF (2007) Conductivity, dielectric behavior and FTIR studies of high molecular weight poly (vinylchloride)—lithium triflate polymer electrolytes. Mater Sci Eng B 139:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen J, Yao B, Li C, Shi G (2013) An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide. Carbon 64:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A, Alemany LB, Lu W, Tour JM (2010) Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano 4(8):4806–4814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dreyer DR, Park S, Bielawski CW, Ruoff RS (2010) The chemistry of graphene oxide. Chem Soc Rev 39:228–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Feng H, Li Y, Li J (2012) Strong reduced graphene oxide—polymer composites: hydrogels and wires. RSC Adv 2:6988–6993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bao C, Song L, Xing W, Yuan B, Wilkie CA, Huang J, Guo Y, Hu Y (2012) Preparation of graphene by pressurized oxidation and multiplex reduction and its polymer nanocomposites by masterbatch-based melt blending. J Mater Chem 22:6088–6096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mallakpour S, Sadeghzadeh R (2017) Facile and green methodology for surface-grafted Al2O3 nanoparticles with biocompatible molecules: preparation of the poly(vinyl alcohol)@poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)nanocomposites. Polym Adv Technol 28:1719–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Safarpour M, Khataee A, Vatanpour V (2015) Thin film nanocomposite reverse osmosis membrane modified by reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 with improved desalination performance. J Membr Sci 489(1):43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Li D, Zhang B, Xuan F (2015) The sequestration of Sr(II) and Cs(I) from aqueous solutions by magnetic graphene oxides. J Mol Liq 209:508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bora C, Bharali P, Baglari S, Dolui SK, Konwar BK (2013) Strong and conductive reduced graphene oxide/polyester resin composite films with improved mechanical strength, thermal stability and its antibacterial activity. Compos Sci Technol 87:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Deshmukh K, Joshi GM (2014) Thermo-mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/graphene oxide as high performance nanocomposites. Polym Test 34:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Khaleghi M, Didehban K, Shabanian M (2017) Effect of new melamine-terphetaldehyde resin modified graphene oxide on thermal and mechanical properties of PVC. Polym Test 63:382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goumri M, Poilâne C, Ruterana P, Doudou BB, Wery J, Bakour A, Baitoul M (2017) Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites films with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Chin J Phys 55(2):412–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vadukumpully S, Paul J, Mahanta N, Valiyaveettil S (2011) Flexible conductive graphene/poly(vinyl chloride) composite thin films with high mechanical strength and thermal stability. Carbon 49:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yang S, Lei P, Shan Y, Zhang D (2018) Preparation and characterization of antibacterial electrospun chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide composite nanofibrous membrane. Appl Surf Sci 435:832–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    O’Neill A, Bakirtzis D, Dixon D (2014) Polyamide 6/Graphene composites: the effect of in situ polymerisation on the structure and properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Eur Polym J 59:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Li P, Chen X, Zeng J-B, Gan L, Wang M (2016) Enhancement of the interfacial interaction between poly(vinyl chloride) and zinc oxide modified reduced graphene oxide. RSC Adv 6:5784–5791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Liu S, Sun H, Suvorova A, Wang S (2013) One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composites using Zn powders for enhanced photocatalysis. Chem Eng J 229:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Awad WH, Beyer G, Benderly D, Ijdo WL, Songtipya P, Jimenez-Gasco MM, Manias E, Wilkie CA (2009) Material properties of nanoclay PVC composites. Polymer 50:1857–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feng X, Xing W, Song L, Hu Y, Live KM (2015) TiO2 loaded on graphene nanosheet as reinforcer and its effect on the thermal behaviors of poly (vinyl chloride). Chem Eng J 260:524–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ma F, Yuan N, Ding J (2013) The conductive network made up by the reduced graphene nanosheet/polyaniline/polyvinyl chloride. J Appl Polym Sci 38624:3870–3875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Duttagupta SP, Chen XL, Jenekhe SA, Fauchet PM (1997) Microhardness of porous silicon films and composites. Solid State Commun 101:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hasan M, Lee M (2014) Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties and efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of graphene/PVC nanocomposites compared to carbon nanotubes/PVC. Proc Natl Sci Mater 24:579–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zheng Y-T, Cao D-R, Wang D-S, Chen J-J (2007) Study on the interface modification of bagasse fibre and the mechanical properties of its composite with PVC. Compos Part A 38:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Li Y, Wang G, Liu S, Zhao S, Zhang K (2018) The preparation of Ni/GO composite foils and the enhancement effects of GO in mechanical properties. Compos B 135:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Crespo JE, Sanchez L, Garcia D, Lopez C (2007) Containing rice husk fillers study of the mechanical and morphological properties of plasticized PVC composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 27(3):229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of BioengineeringBilecik Seyh Edebali UniversityBilecikTurkey
  2. 2.Department of MetallurgyBilecik Seyh Edebali University, Vocational CollegeBilecikTurkey
  3. 3.Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Biotechnology Application and Research CenterBilecikTurkey

Personalised recommendations