Preparation and characterization of κ-carrageenan hydrogel for controlled release of copper and manganese micronutrients

  • Gulen Oytun AkalinEmail author
  • Mehlika Pulat
Original Paper


A series of κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) hydrogels were prepared by using glutaraldehyde (GA) as crosslinker for controlled releasing of copper and manganese micronutrients. The hydrogels were characterized by gel content, swelling and degradation tests, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations. The variations of swelling percentages (S%) with time, temperature and pH were determined for all hydrogels. As the amounts of crosslinker increased, S% decreased regularly in contrast to gel content results. The higher swelling values were obtained in basic medium than acidic and neutral mediums for all κ-CG hydrogels. Releasing of copper and manganese micronutrients from κ-CG hydrogels was investigated in water and soil. A simulated releasing model was also applied to estimate the releasing behaviors in agricultural irrigations. In all release studies, the cumulative release values increased with decreasing GA amounts. The release kinetic parameters were also calculated. It was detected that the releasing of micronutrients in soil was slower than that in water.



This work was financially supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Gazi University (Grant No. 05/2015-08).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientific and Technological Application and Research CenterAksaray UniversityAksarayTurkey
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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