Advertisement

Graphene impact of the LDPE characteristics

  • Maziyar SabetEmail author
  • Hassan Soleimani
  • Seyednooroldin Hosseini
Original Paper
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Graphene addition to low-density polyethylene prolonged oxygen penetration in low-density polyethylene (LDPE), deferred embrittlement effect of polymeric compound, developed storage modulus, electrical conductivity and enhanced viscosity of LDPE nanocompounds. The presence of graphenes inhibited movement of polymer chains, which affected increasing toughness and capability of LDPE compounds. Continuity of carbon–carbon connection threshold of graphene compound took place with about 0.5 wt% graphene inclusion in LDPE structure. The impenetrability of oxygen over the surface of LDPE compounds achieved with 0.5 wt% graphene inclusion, which made severe perfections and decreased 37% fuel penetration if it is compared to pristine LDPE.

Keywords

Low-density polyethylene Graphene impact Mechanical Electrical Complex viscosity and penetrability tests 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Lia Z, Gonzáleza AJ, Heeralala VB, Wang DY (2018) Covalent assembly of MCM-41 nanospheres on graphene oxide for improving fire retardancy and mechanical property of epoxy resin. Compos B 138:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Papageorgiou DG, Terzopoulou Z, Fina A, George FC, Papageorgiou Z, Bikiaris DK, Chrissafis K, Young RJ, Kinloch IA (2018) Enhanced thermal and fire retardancy properties of polypropylene reinforced with a hybrid graphene/glass-fibre filler. Compos Sci Technol 156:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sabet M, Soleimani H (2017) The impact of electron beam irradiation on low density polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 204(1):012005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu W, Liang B, Xiaoling Z, Guisong W, Ding WD (2018) The flame retardancy and smoke suppression effect of a hybrid containing CuMoO4 modified reduced graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide on epoxy resin. J Hazard Mater 343:364–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sabet M, Soleimani H (2018) Broad studies of graphene and low-density polyethylene composites. J Elastom Plast.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0095244318802608 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng Y, He CH, Wen Y, Ye Y, Zhou X, Xie X, Mai YW (2018) Superior flame retardancy and smoke suppression of epoxy-based composites with phosphorus/nitrogen co-doped graphene. J Hazard Mater 346:140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yuan B, Fan A, Yang M, Chen X, Hu Y, Bao C, Jiang S, Niu Y, Zhang Y, He S, Dai H (2017) The effects of graphene on the flammability and fire behavior of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites at different flame scenarios. Polym Degrad Stab 143:42–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sabet M, Soleimani H, Hassan A, Ratnam CT (2014) Electron beam irradiation of LDPE filled with calcium carbonate and metal hydroxides. Polym Plast Technol Eng 53(13):1362–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feng Y, He C, Wen Y, Ye Y, Zhou X, Xie X, Mai YW (2017) Improving thermal and flame retardant properties of epoxy resin by functionalized graphene containing phosphorous, nitrogen and silicon elements. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 103:74–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sabet M, Hassan A, Ratnam CT (2015/2013) Properties of ethylene–vinyl acetate filled with metal hydroxide. J Elastom Plast 47:1 88–100Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xu W, Zhang B, Xu B, Li A (2016) The flame retardancy and smoke suppression effect of heptaheptamolybdate modified reduced graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide hybrids on polyurethane elastomer. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 91:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang G, Wang S, Song P, Wu C, Chen S, Wang X (2014) Combination effect of tubes with graphene on intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene nanocomposites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 59:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sabet M, Syafiq M (2013) Calcium stearate and alumina trihydrate addition of irradiated LDPE, EVA and blends with electron beam. Appl Mech Mater 290:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang G, Chen S, Song P, Lu P, Wu C, Liang H (2014) Combination effects of graphene and layered double hydroxides on intumescent flame-retardant poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites. Appl Clay Sci 88–89:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu S, Yan H, Fang Z, Wang H (2014) Effect of graphene nanosheets on morphology, thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin. Compos Sci Technol 90:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sabet M, Savory RM, Hassan A, Chantara TR (2013) The effect of TMPTMA addition on electron-beam irradiated LDPE, EVA and blend properties. Int Polym Proc 28(4):386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li KY, Kuan CF, Kuan HC, Chen CH, Shen MY, Yang JM, Chiang CL (2014) Preparation and properties of novel epoxy/graphene oxide nanosheets (GON) composites functionalized with flame retardant containing phosphorus and silicon. Mater Chem Phys 146(3):354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang Z, Wei P, Qian Y, Liu J (2014) The synthesis of a novel graphene-based inorganic–organic hybrid flame retardant and its application in epoxy resin. Compos B Eng 60:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Soleimani H, Yahya N, Baig MK, Khodapanah L, Sabet M, Burda M, Oechsner A, Awang M (2015) Synthesis of carbon nanotubes for oil-water interfacial tension reduction. Oil Gas Res 1(1):1000104Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hong N, Song L, Wang B, Stec AA, Hull TR, Zhan J, Hu Y (2014) Co-precipitation synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/NiAl-layered double hydroxide hybrid and its application in flame retarding poly(methyl methacrylate). Mater Res Bull 49:657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soleimani H, Latiff NRA, Yahya N, Sabet M, Khodapanah L, Kozlowski G, Chuan LK, Guan BH (2016) Synthesis and characterization of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) nanoparticles activated by electromagnetic wave in enhanced oil recovery. J Nano Res 38:40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sabet M, Hassan A, Ratnam CT (2013) Electron-beam irradiation of low density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate blends. J Polym Eng 33:149–161Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dittrich B, Wartig KA, Hofmann D, Mülhaupt R, Schartel B (2013) Flame retardancy through carbon nanomaterials: carbon black, multiwall nanotubes, expanded graphite, multi-layer graphene and graphene in polypropylene. Polym Degrad Stab 98(8):1495–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maziyar S, Hassan S, Hosseini S (2018) Effect of addition graphene to ethylene vinyl acetate and low-density polyethylene. J Vinyl Add Tech 24:E177–E185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang G, Chen S, Liang H, Wang X, Gao J (2013) Combination of graphene and montmorillonite reduces the flammability of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites. Appl Clay Sci 80–81:433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maziyar S, Hassan S, Erfan M (2018) Effect of graphene and carbon nanotube on low-density polyethylene nanocomposites. J Vinyl Add Tech.  https://doi.org/10.1002/vnl.21643 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maziyar S, Hassan S (2018) Thermal, electrical and characterization effects of graphene on the properties of low-density polyethylene composites. Int J Plast Technol 22:234–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Woehrl N, Ochedowski O, Gottlieb S, Shibasaki K, Schulz S (2014) Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates. AIP Adv 4:047128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boyd DA, Lin WH, Hsu CC, Teague ML, Chen CC, Lo YY, Chan WY, Su WB, Cheng TC, Chang CS, Wu CI, Yeh NC (2015) Single-step deposition of high-mobility graphene at reduced temperature. Nat Commun 6:6620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sabet M, Hassan A, Ratnam CT (2013) Effect of zinc borate on flammability/thermal properties of ethylene vinyl acetate filled with metal hydroxides. J Reinf Plast Compos 32(15):1122–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaindl R, Jakopic G, Resel R, Pichler J, Fian A, Fisslthaler E, Grogger W, Bayer BC, Fischer R, Waldhauser W (2015) Synthesis of graphene-layer nanosheet coatings by PECV. Mater Today Proc 2:4247–4255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhou K, Gao R (2017) The influence of a novel two dimensional graphene-like nanomaterial on thermal stability and flammability of polystyrene. J Colloid Interface Sci 500:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sabet M, Soleimani H, Seyednooroldin H (2016) Properties and characterization of ethylene-vinyl acetate filled with carbon nanotube. Polym Bull 73:419–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yimin J, Yuzhou L, Guoqiang C, Tieling X (2017) Fire-resistant and highly electrically conductive silk fabrics fabricated with reduced graphene oxide via dry-coating. Mater Des 133:528–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou K, Gui Z, Hu Y, Jiang S, Tang G (2016) The influence of cobalt oxide–graphene hybrids on thermal degradation, fire hazards and mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 88:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhoup K, Gui Z, Hu Y (2016) The influence of graphene based smoke suppression agents on reduced fire hazards of polystyrene composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 80:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sabet M, Soleimani H (2014) Mechanical and electrical properties of low density polyethylene filled with carbon nanotubes. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 64:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chen X, Ma C, Jiao C (2016) Enhancement of flame-retardant performance of thermoplastic polyurethane with the incorporation of aluminum hypophosphite and iron-graphene. Polym Degrad Stab 129:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu S, Fang Z, Yan H, Chevali VS, Wang H (2016) Synergistic flame retardancy effect of graphene nanosheets and traditional retardants on epoxy resin. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 89:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bengin MAH (2017) Combined effects of modified polystyrene and unprocessed fly ash on concrete characteristics produced by a novel technique of densification. World Eng Appl Sci J 8(3):118–129Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Srinivasan V, Francis MLK, Purushothaman T (2017) Applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: a literature review. World Eng Appl Sci J 8(2):111–114Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vijayasarathi P, Suresh PP, Rajaram G (2016) Experimental and investigation of nano nanocompound coated TI-C-N surfaces with ball-cratering test method. World Eng Appl Sci J 7(2):85–91Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hosseini SN, Shuker MT, Sabet M, Zamani A, Hosseini Z, Shabib AA (2015) Brine ions and mechanism of low salinity water injection in enhanced oil recovery: a review. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 11(11):1257–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bettina D, Karen AW, Daniel H, Rolf M, Bernhard S (2013) Flame retardancy through carbon nanostuffs: carbon black, multi wall nanotubes, expanded graphite, multi-layer graphene and graphene in polypropylene. Polym Degrad Strength 98:1495–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kuo YL, Chen FK, Hsu CK, Chia HC, Ming YS, Jia MY, Chin LC (2014) Preparation and properties of novel epoxy/graphene oxide nanosheets (GON) compounds functionalized with flame retardant containing phosphorus and silicon. Stuffs Chem Phys 146:354–362Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhou S, Ning M, Wang X (2015) The influence of c-radiation on the mechanical, thermal decomposition, and flame retardant characteristics of EVA/LDPE/ATH blends. Therm Anal Calorim 119:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Peroleum and Chemical Engineering ProgrammeUniversiti Teknologi Brunei (UTB)Bandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Department of Fundamental and Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP)IpohMalaysia
  3. 3.Head of EOR Center, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Omidiyeh BranchIslamic Azad UniversityOmidiyehIran

Personalised recommendations