Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 3127–3151 | Cite as

Fabrication and evaluation of pH-dependent polymeric microspheres of ivabradine and their in vitro and in vivo studies

  • Abdul MajeedEmail author
  • Nazar Muhammad Ranjha
  • Mussadique Hussain
  • Muhammad Fawad Rasool
Original Paper


The aim of this work was the development and evaluation of controlled release formulations consisting of methacrylate derivatives and ethyl cellulose synthesized using oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Drug release studies were performed in different dissolution media. Maximum drug released was observed at pH 7.4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, SEM and thermal analysis showed compatibility between drug and polymers. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Phoenix WinNonlin® version 6.3 software. The average AUC0–t was found to be 2483.71 ± 13.173 ng/ml h, 5954.37 ± 12.110 ng/ml h, 6400.82 ± 19.131 ng/ml h and 7427.4 ± 49.322 ng/ml h for group 1–4, respectively. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of IBH for all groups predicted from pharmacokinetics data was 880.38 ng/ml, 718.43 ng/ml, 721.87 ng/ml and 805.11 ng/ml, respectively. Thus, in vitro and in vivo drug release studies of polymeric microspheres proved their controlled release behavior with preferential delivery for an extended period of time.


Microspheres FTIR Pharmacokinetic models HPLC Ivabradine 



The authors are very thankful to Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, for the support of this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, The Key Respiratory Drug Research Laboratory of China Food and Drug Administration, School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhou CityChina

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