Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 3059–3071 | Cite as

High-performance poly(vinyl alcohol)–chitosan sponge modified with graphene oxide

  • Duanli Wei
  • Xiaofeng Luo
  • Lijun Xiong
  • Huabo Huang
  • Liang LiEmail author
  • Xianghua YuEmail author
  • Lai Wei
Original Paper


Three-dimensional porous sponge with good mechanical strength, high absorption capacity and recyclability is of scientific and technological interest. In this work, graphene oxide has been incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol)–chitosan sponge during acetalization reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) for the fabrication of macroporous and amphiphilic sponges. Mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the as-prepared sponges have interconnected open-cell structures. The incorporation of graphene oxide and the interconnected macroporous structures in the amphiphilic sponges endow them with improved absorption capacity for both water and organic liquids. Moreover, the absorbed liquids can be effectively collected through simple squeezing and the sponges can be used repeatedly while maintaining a relative high absorption capacity. The simple fabrication and improved performance of the resulting sponges suggest that they have potential industrial applications.


Poly(vinyl alcohol) Chitosan Graphene oxide Sponge 



The work was supported by Outstanding Youth Scientific Innovation Team of Colleges and Universities in Hubei Province (T201406) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (51403167, 51602230).


  1. 1.
    Wu X, Wen T, Guo H, Yang S, Wang X, Xu A (2013) Biomass-derived sponge-like carbonaceous hydrogels and aerogels for supercapacitors. ACS Nano 7:3589–3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee J, Park GS, Kim ST, Liu ML, Cho J (2013) A highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction: n-doped ketjenblack incorporated into Fe/Fe3C-functionalized melamine foam. Angew Chem Int Ed 52:1026–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhu Q, Pan Q (2014) Mussel-inspired direct immobilization of nanoparticles and application for oil-water separation. ACS Nano 8:1402–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pan Y, Shi K, Peng C, Wang W, Liu Z, Ji X (2014) Evaluation of hydrophobic polyvinyl-alcohol formaldehyde sponges as absorbents for oil spill. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:8651–8659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yu Y, Zeng JF, Chen CJ, Xie Z, Guo RS, Liu ZL, Zhou XC, Yang Y, Zheng ZJ (2014) Three-dimensional compressible and stretchable conductive composites. Adv Mater 26:810–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang Y, Liu Z, Huang J, Wang C (2015) Multifunctional, robust sponges by a simple adsorption–combustion method. J Mater Chem A 3:5875–5881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duan B, Gao H, He M, Zhang L (2014) Hydrophobic modification on surface of chitin sponges for highly effective separation of oil. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:19933–19942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang G, He B, Zhao F, Guo W, Xue Q, Li H (2015) High performance sponge MnO2 nanotube monoliths. RSC Adv 5:60831–60834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi S, Kwon T, Im H, Moon D, Baek DJ, Seol ML, Duarte JP, Choi Y (2011) A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of oil from water. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:4552–4556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malik NS, Ahmad M, Minhas MU, Murtaza G, Khalid Q (2017) Polysaccharide hydrogels for controlled release of acyclovir: development, characterization and in vitro evaluation studies. Polym Bull 74:4311–4328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sinoforoglu M, Gur B, Ark M, Onganer Y, Meral K (2013) Graphene oxide sheets as a template for dye assembly: graphene oxide sheets induce H-aggregates of pyronin (Y) dye. RSC Adv 3:11832–11838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chabot V, Higgins D, Yu A, Xiao X, Chen Z, Zhang J (2014) A review of graphene and graphene oxide sponge: material synthesis and applications to energy and the environment. Energy Environ Sci 7:1564–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Issaadi K, Pillin I, Habi A, Grohens Y (2017) Synergetic association of grafted PLA and functionalized graphene on the properties of the designed nanocomposites. Polym Bull 74:997–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Young RJ, Kinloch IA, Gong L, Novoselov KS (2012) The mechanics of graphene nanocomposites: a review. Compos Sci Technol 72:1459–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang L, Fan Z (2014) Design of advanced porous graphene materials: from graphene nanomesh to 3D architectures. Nanoscale 6:1922–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dikin DA, Stankovich S, Zimney EJ, Piner RD, Dommett GHB, Evmenenko G, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2007) Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper. Nature 448:457–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ji J, Yu X, Cheng P, Zhang Q, Du F, Li L, Shang S (2015) Assembly of polypyrrole-graphene oxide hydrogel nanocomposites and their swelling properties. J Macromol Sci Part B Phys 54:1122–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yao X, Yu W, Xu X, Chen F, Fu Q (2015) Amphiphilic, ultralight, and multifunctional graphene/nanofibrillated cellulose aerogel achieved by cation-induced gelation and chemical reduction. Nanoscale 7:3959–3964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hodlur RM, Rabinal MK (2014) Self assembled graphene layers on polyurethane foam as a highly pressure sensitive conducting composite. Compos Sci Technol 90:160–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu L, Yang J, Meng Q (2013) The preparation and characterization graphene-cross-linked phenol–formaldehyde hybrid carbon xerogels. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 67:304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    She X, Sun P, Yu X, Zhang Q, Wu Y, Li L, Huang Y, Shang S, Jiang S (2014) Fabrication of 3D polypyrrole/graphene oxide composite hydrogels with high performance swelling properties. J Inorg Organomet Polym 24:884–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun P, Wang Y, Yu X, Zhang Q, Wu Y, Li L, Shang S, Jiang S (2014) One-step assembly of polypyrrole-graphene oxide nanocomposite sponges. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 6:1102–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yao H, Ge J, Wang C, Wang X, Hu W, Zheng Z, Ni Y, Yu S (2013) A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design. Adv Mater 25:6692–6698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu Y, Ma J, Wu T, Wang X, Huang G, Liu Y, Qiu H, Li Y, Wang W, Gao J (2011) Cost-effective reduced graphene oxide-coated polyurethane sponge as a highly efficient and reusable oil-absorbent. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:10018–10026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bello A, Barzegar F, Momodu D, Dangbegnon J, Taghizadeh F, Fabiane M, Manyala N (2015) Asymmetric supercapacitor based on nanostructured graphene foam/polyvinyl alcohol/formaldehyde and activated carbon electrodes. J Power Sources 273:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Qin Y, Peng Q, Ding Y, Lin Z, Wang C, Li Y, Xu F, Li J, Yuan Y, He X, Li Y (2015) Lightweight, superelastic, and mechanically flexible graphene/polyimide nanocomposite foam for strain sensor application. ACS Nano 9:8933–8941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zheng W, Li S, Yu X, Chen C, Huang H, Huang Y, Li L (2016) Synthesis of hierarchical reduced graphene oxide/SnO2/polypyrrole ternary composites with high electrochemical performance. Mater Res Bull 80:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cai Z, Xiong H, Zhu Z, Huang H, Li L, Huang Y, Yu X (2017) Electrochemical synthesis of graphene/polypyrrole nanotube composites for multifunctional applications. Synth Met 227:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liang J, Huang Y, Zhang L, Wang Y, Ma Y, Guo T, Chen Y (2009) Molecular-level dispersion of graphene into poly (vinyl alcohol) and effective reinforcement of their nanocomposites. Adv Funct Mater 19:2297–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Okay O (2000) Macroporous copolymer networks. Prog Polym Sci 25:711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pourjavadi A, Pourbadiei B, Doroudian M, Azarib S (2015) Preparation of PVA nanocomposites using salep-reduced graphene oxide with enhanced mechanical and biological properties. RSC Adv 5:92428–92437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yao W, Geng C, Han D, Chen F, Fu Q (2014) Strong and conductive double-network graphene/PVA gel. RSC Adv 4:39588–39595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Padava DT, Hamilton AM, Millon LE, Boughner DR, Wan W (2011) Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cell compatibility study of a poly(amic acid) graft/cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. Acta Biomater 7:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and EngineeringWuhan Institute of TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Physical Science and TechnologyYili Normal UniversityYiningPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations