Advertisement

Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 2819–2834 | Cite as

PdNPs@thermo-responsive block copolymers composed of PNIPAM and poly(ionic liquid) via RAFT polymerization

  • Soheila GhasemiEmail author
  • Zahra Amini Harandi
Original Paper
  • 74 Downloads

Abstract

Preparation and identification of block copolymers comprised of PNIPAM and poly(ionic liquid) of pyridinium sulfonate by two different approaches through changing the order of monomer addition has been reported. Controlled synthesis is performed via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) are immobilized onto these block copolymers to utilize them as thermo-responsive catalysts. The block copolymers and their corresponding catalysts were characterized by varied techniques, i.e., FTIR, NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy, ICP, TGA, DLS and X-ray diffraction. SEM and EDAX were applied to analyze the surface of the sample and its composition. Furthermore, TEM was used to obtain the size of PdNPs and their distribution in the polymer matrix. The catalytic efficiency of the catalysts was examined in the Heck coupling reaction for the production of butyl cinnamate.

Keywords

Block copolymers RAFT polymerization Thermo-responsive catalyst Ionic liquid Pd catalyst 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

289_2018_2532_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
FTIR graphs of PNIPAM (1), PNIPAM-b-P4VP (2 and 6), PNIPAM-b-PIL (3 and 7) and P4VP (5) and 1H-NMR spectra of PNIPAM (1) (in acetone-d6), PNIPAM-b-P4VP (2) (in acetone-d6), PNIPAM-b-PIL (3) (in DMSO-d6), P4VP (5) (in CDCl3), PNIPAM-b-P4VP (6) (in CDCl3) and PNIPAM-b-PIL (7) (in D2O), and TG and DTG data and SEM of PNIPAM (1) (DOCX 1402 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Vekariya RL (2017) A review of ionic liquids: applications towards catalytic organic transformations. J Mol Liq 227:44–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walden P (1914) Chem Zentralbl 85:1800–1801Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morton MD, Hamer CK (2018) Ionic liquids—the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning?—a look at the life of ionic liquids through patent claims. Sep Purif Technol 196:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Angell CA, Ansari Y, Zhao Z (2012) Ionic liquids: past, present and future. Faraday Discuss 154:9–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Plechkova NV, Seddon KR (2008) Applications of ionic liquids in the chemical industry. Chem Soc Rev 37:123–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuan J, Mecerreyes D, Antonietti M (2013) Poly(ionic liquid)s: an update. Prog Polym Sci 38:1009–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salamone JC, Israel SC, Taylor P, Snider B (1973) Synthesis and homopolymerization of vinylimidazolium salts. Polymer 14:639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohno H, Ito K (1998) Room-temperature molten salt polymers as a matrix for fast ion conduction. Chem Lett 27:751–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yuan J, Antonietti M (2011) Poly(ionic liquid)s: polymers expanding classical property profiles. Polymer 52:1469–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Men Y, Kuzmicz D, Yuan J (2014) Poly(ionic liquid) colloidal particles. Curr Opin Colloid Interface 19:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eftekhari A, Saitoc T (2017) Synthesis and properties of polymerized ionic liquids. Eur Polym J 90:245–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qian W, Texter J, Yan F (2017) Frontiers in poly(ionic liquid)s: syntheses and applications. Chem Soc Rev 46:1124–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nasiri M, Bertrand A, Reineke TM, Hillmyer MA (2014) Polymeric nanocylinders by combining block copolymer self-assembly and nanoskiving. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:16283–16288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agustina S, Tokuda M, Minami H, Boyer C, Zetterlund PB (2017) Synthesis of polymeric nano-objects of various morphologies based on block copolymer self-assembly using microporous membranes. React Chem Eng 2:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stefik M, Guldin S, Vignolini S, Wiesner U, Steiner U (2015) Block copolymer self-assembly for nanophotonics. Chem Soc Rev 44:5076–5091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dai Y, Li Y, Wang S (2015) ABC triblock copolymer-stabilized gold nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. J Catal 329:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gallagher JJ, Hillmyer MA, Reineke TM (2016) Acrylic triblock copolymers incorporating isosorbide for pressure sensitive adhesives. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4:3379–3387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nasiri M, Saxon DJ, Reineke TM (2018) Enhanced mechanical and adhesion properties in sustainable triblock copolymers via non-covalent interactions. Macromolecules 51:2456–2465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agrahari V, Agrahari V (2018) Advances and applications of block-copolymer-based nano formulations. Drug Discov Today.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.03.004 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Feng H, Lu X, Wang W, Kang NG, Mays JW (2017) Block copolymers: synthesis, self-assembly, and applications. Polymers 9:494–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wu WC, Chen CY, Lee WY, Chen WC (2015) Stimuli-responsive conjugated rod-coil block copolymers: synthesis, morphology and applications. Polymer 65:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vijayakrishna K, Jewrajka SK, Ruiz A, Marcilla R, Pomposo JA, Mecerreyes D, Taton D, Gnanou Y (2008) Synthesis by RAFT and ionic responsiveness of double hydrophilic block copolymers based on ionic liquid monomer units. Macromolecules 41:6299–6308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yuan J, Schlaad H, Giordano C, Antonietti M (2011) Double hydrophilic diblock copolymers containing a poly(ionic liquid) segment: controlled synthesis, solution property, and application as carbon precursor. Eur Polym J 47:772–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mori H, Ebina Y, Kambara R, Nakabayashi K (2012) Temperature-responsive self-assembly of star block copolymers with poly(ionic liquid) segments. Polym J 44:550–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mori H, Yahagi M, Endo T (2009) RAFT polymerization of N-vinylimidazolium salts and synthesis of thermos responsive ionic liquid block copolymers. Macromolecules 42:8082–8092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kamiya J, Raman V, Masaki W, Mamoru I, Noriyoshi M (2015) Tunable LCST behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide/ionic liquid) copolymers. Polym Chem 6:6819–6825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karjalainen E, Chenna N, Laurinmaki P, Butcher SJ, Tenhu H (2013) Diblock copolymers consisting of a polymerized ionic liquid and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Effects of PNIPAM block length and counter ion on self-assembling and thermal properties. Polym Chem 4:1014–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang Z, Lai H, Wu P (2012) Influence of PIL segment on solution properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(ionic liquid) copolymer: micelles, thermal phase behavior and microdynamics. Soft Matter 8:11644–11653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weber N, Texter J, Tauer K (2011) The synthesis of special block copolymers using a reaction calorimeter. Macromol Symp 302:224–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yua R, Tauer K (2014) From particles to stabilizing blocks—polymerized ionic liquids in aqueous heterophase polymerization. Polym Chem 5:5644–5655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Men Y, Drechsler M, Yuan J (2013) Double-stimuli-responsive spherical polymer brushes with a poly(ionic liquid) core and a thermos responsive shell. Macromol Rapid Commun 34:1721–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karjalainen E, Khlebnikov V, Korpi A, Hirvonen SP, Hietala S, Aseyev V, Tenhu H (2015) Complex interactions in aqueous PIL-PNIPAm-PIL triblock copolymer solutions. Polymer 58:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghasemi S, Amini Harandi Z (2018) Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(ionic liquid) of pyridinium sulfonate immobilized Pd nanoparticles in C–C coupling reactions. RSC Adv 8:14570–14578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keddie DJ (2014) A guide to the synthesis of block copolymers using reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Chem Soc Rev 43:496–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations