Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 2765–2776 | Cite as

Effects of swelling on the effective mechanical and electrical properties of a carbon black-filled polymer

  • F. Elhaouzi
  • A. Mdarhri
  • C. BrosseauEmail author
  • I. El Aboudi
  • A. Almaggoussi
Original Paper


In this paper, attention is drawn to the effective mechanical and electrical properties of swollen semicrystalline ethylene-co-butyl acrylate (EBA) polymer filled with spherical carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. The kinetics of solvent diffusion is studied at room temperature by immersion of dried samples with different CB volume fractions in toluene. Solvent diffusion into the composite samples follows power law dependence as a function of time and is characterized by a decrease in solvent uptake with increasing the CB particles acting as barriers. The preferential localization of solvent molecules into the composite is examined by evaluating the wetting coefficient. The stress–strain curves of pre- and post-swelling obtained by uniaxial tensile tests show a decrease in Young’s modulus, yield stress and strength of the swollen samples compared to the unswollen ones. Haward and Tackray’s model is used to describe the physics of the stress–strain curves of both unswollen and swollen samples in relation to the microstructure characteristics (entanglements, strain hardening modulus). It is found that the dc electrical conductivity of swollen samples is several orders of magnitude lower than that of unswollen samples.



The authors, and especially F. Elhaouzi, thank CNRST-Morocco for the Excellence Scholarship.


  1. 1.
    Donnet J-B, Bansal RC, Wang M-J (eds) (1993) Carbon black: science and technology, 2nd edn. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bokobza L (2013) Elastomeric composites based on nanospherical particles and carbon nanotubes: a comparative study. Rubber Chem Technol 86:423–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sombatsompop N (1998) Investigation of swelling behavior of NR vulcanisates. Polym Plast Technol Eng 37:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abu-Abdeen M, Elamer I (2010) Mechanical and swelling properties of thermoplastic elastomer blends. Mater Des 31:808–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crank J (1975) The mathematics of diffusion, 2d edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Omidian H, Hasherni S-A, Askari F, Nafisi S (1994) Swelling and crosslink density measurements for hydrogels. Iran J Polym Sci Technol 3:115–119Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Sabbagh SH, Yehia AA (2007) Detection of crosslink density by different methods for natural rubber blended with SBR and NBR. Egypt J Solids 30:157–173Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abu-Abdeen M (2001) Degradation of the mechanical properties of composite vulcanizates loaded with paraffin wax. J Appl Polym Sci 81:2265–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mdarhri A, Brosseau C, Zaghrioui M, El Aboudi I (2012) Electronic conduction and microstructure in polymer composites filled with carbonaceous particles. J Appl Phys 112:034118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elhaouzi F, Nourdine A, Mdarhri A, El Aboudi I, Zaghrioui M (2018) On the mechanical properties of elastomeric polymer/carbon black nanocomposites (submitted)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chai AB, Andriyana A, Verron E, Johan MR (2013) Mechanical characteristics of swollen elastomers under cyclic loading. Mater Des 44:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carrillo A, Martín-Domínguez IR, Glossman D, Márquez A (2005) Study of the effect of solvent induced swelling on the resistivity of butadiene based elastomers doped with carbon particles. Part I: Elucidating second order effects. Sens Actuators A 119:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seehra MS, Yalamanchi M, Singh V (2012) Structural characteristics and swelling mechanism of two commercial nitrile-butadiene elastomers in various fluids. Polym Test 31:564–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Busfield JJC, Deeprasertkul C, Thomas AG (2000) The effect of liquids on the dynamic properties of carbon black filled natural rubber as a function of pre-strain. Polymer 41:9219–9225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Busfield JJC, Thomas AG, Yamaguchi K (2004) Electrical and mechanical behavior of filled elastomers 2: the effect of swelling and temperature. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 42:2161–2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brosseau C (2008) Prospects in filled polymers engineering mesostructure, elasticity network, and macroscopic properties. Transworld Research Network, KeralaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haward RN (1993) Strain hardening of thermoplastics. Macromolecules 26(22):5860–5869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Flory PJ (2006) Principles of polymer chemistry. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wypych G (2012) Handbook of polymers. ChemTec Pub, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adohi BJ-P, Mdarhri A, Prunier C, Haidar B, Brosseau C (2010) A comparison between physical properties of carbon black- and carbon nanotubes-polymer composites. J Appl Phys 108:074108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brosseau C, Boulic F, Queffelec P, Bourbigot C, Le Mest Y, Loaëc J, Beroual A (1997) Dielectric and microstructure properties of polymer carbon black composites. J Appl Phys 81:882–891. See also Boulic F, Brosseau C, Le Mest Y, Loaëc J, Carmona F (1998) Absorbency properties and electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of polymeric carbon black composites. J Phys D Appl Phys 31:1904–1912Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mdarhri A, Brosseau C, Carmona F (2007) Microwave dielectric properties of carbon black filled polymers under uniaxial tension. J Appl Phys 101:084111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    George SC, Thomas S (2001) Transport phenomena through polymeric systems. Prog Polym Sci 26:985–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Markoš J (2011) Mass transfer in chemical engineering processes. InTech, RijekaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Priya Dasan K, Unnikrishnan G, Purushothaman E (2008) Solvent transport through carbon black filled poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) composites. Express Polym Lett 2:382–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Visakh PM, Thomas S, Oksman K, Mathew AP (2012) Cellulose nanofibres and cellulose nanowhiskers based natural rubber composites: diffusion, sorption, and permeation of aromatic organic solvents. J Appl Polym Sci 124:1614–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barrer RM, Barrie JA, Rogers MG (1963) Heterogeneous membranes: diffusion in filled rubber. J Polym Sci A 1:2565–2586Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sambhudevan S, Shankar B, Appukuttan S, Joseph K (2016) Evaluation of kinetics and transport mechanism of solvents through natural rubber composites containing organically modified gadolinium oxide. Plast Rubber Compos 45:216–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ganji F, Vasheghani Farahani S, Vasheghani-Farahani E (2010) Theoretical description of hydrogel swelling: a review, Iran. Polym J 19:375–398Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lützow N et al (1999) Diffusion of toluene and n-heptane in polyethylenes of different crystallinity. Polymer 40:2797–2803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Michaels AS, Bixler HJ, Fein HL (1964) Gas transport in thermally conditioned linear polyethylene. J Appl Phys 35:3165–3178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kreituss A, Frisch HL (1981) Free-volume estimates in heterogeneous polymer systems. I. Diffusion in crystalline ethylene–propylene copolymers. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 19:889–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Asai S, Sakata K, Sumita M, Miyasaka K (1992) Effect of interfacial free energy on the heterogeneous distribution of oxidized carbon black in polymer blends. Polym J 24:415–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mittal KL (ed) (2013) Advances in contact angle, wettability and adhesion. Scrivener Publishing, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pötschke P, Pegel S, Claes M, Bonduel D (2008) A Novel strategy to incorporate carbon nanotubes into thermoplastic matrices. Macromol Rapid Commun 29:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu S (1982) Polymer interface and adhesion. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schott H (2006) Swelling kinetics of polymers. J Macromol Sci Part B Phys 31:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goldman AI (1994) Prediction of the deformation properties of polymeric and composite materials. CERN Document Server. [Online]. Accessed 04 Mar 2018
  39. 39.
    Bicerano J (2002) Prediction of polymer properties, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van Melick HGH, Govaert LE, Meijer HEH (2003) On the origin of strain hardening in glassy polymers. Polymer 44:2493–2502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sumita M, Sakata K, Asai S, Miyasaka K, Nakagawa H (1991) Dispersion of fillers and the electrical conductivity of polymer blends filled with carbon black. Polym Bull 25:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Balamurugan GP, Maiti SN (2007) Influence of microstructure and deformation behavior on toughening of reactively compatibilized polyamide 6 and poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate) blends. Eur Polym J 43:1786–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morrissey P, Vesely D (2000) Accurate measurement of diffusion rates of small molecules through polymers. Polymer 41:1865–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanostructures (LMCN), FSTGUniversité Cadi AyyadMarrakechMorocco
  2. 2.Lab-STICCUniversité de BrestBrest Cedex 3France
  3. 3.Groupe d’Étude des Matériaux Optoélectroniques (G.E.M.O), FSTGUniversité Cadi AyyadMarrakechMorocco

Personalised recommendations