Advertisement

Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 883–902 | Cite as

Exploring the comparative effect of silane coupling agents with different functional groups on the cure, mechanical and thermal properties of nano-alumina (Al2O3)-based natural rubber (NR) compounds

  • Kumarjyoti Roy
  • Pranut PotiyarajEmail author
Original Paper
  • 142 Downloads

Abstract

The surface of sol–gel-synthesized nano-alumina (Al2O3) was modified by three types of silane coupling agents with different specific functionalities, namely 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), triethoxy(octyl)silane (OCTEOS) and bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]tetrasulfide (TESPT). The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of both unmodified and surface-modified nano-Al2O3 on the cure characteristics, mechanical properties, cross-link density and thermal stability of natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites. Results revealed that silane coupling agents were very effective to enhance maximum rheometric torque (R) and mechanical properties like modulus and tensile strength of nano-Al2O3-based NR nanocomposites. APTES offered higher value of cure rate index for NR compounds as compared to two other silane coupling agents. Among three silane coupling agents, TESPT provided highest improvement in the mechanical properties of NR/nano-Al2O3 composites. This might be explained by considering excellent improvement in the cross-link density of NR compounds in the presence of TESPT-treated nano-Al2O3. The incorporation of both TESPT- and OCTEOS-modified nano-Al2O3 into the NR matrix markedly improved the thermal stability of NR composites. Moreover, bi-functional silane TESPT not only increased the hydrophobicity of nano-Al2O3, but also improved the probability of sulfur cross-linking during cure process of NR compounds.

Keywords

Nanocomposites Silane coupling agents Mechanical properties Cross-link density Thermal stability 

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors, Kumarjyoti Roy would like to thank postdoctoral fellowship supported by Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund, Chulalongkorn University for fellowship assistance.

References

  1. 1.
    Ismail H, Ramly F, Othman N (2010) Multiwall carbon nanotube-filled natural rubber: the effects of filler loading and mixing method. Polym Plast Technol Eng 49:260–266Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kueseng P, Sae-oui P, Rattanasom N (2013) Mechanical and electrical properties of natural rubber and nitrile rubber blends filled with multi-wall carbon nanotube: effect of preparation methods. Polym Test 32:731–738Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ismail H, Salleh SZ, Ahmad Z (2011) Curing characteristics, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs)-filled natural rubber nanocomposites. Polym Plast Technol Eng 50:681–688Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sookyung U, Nakason C, Thaijaroen W, Vennemann N (2014) Influence of modifying agents of organoclay on properties of nanocomposites based on natural rubber. Polym Test 33:48–56Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Viet CX, Ismail H, Rashid AA, Takeichi T, Thao VH (2008) Organoclay filled natural rubber nanocomposites: the effects of filler loading. Polym Plast Technol Eng 47:1090–1096Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Poompradub S, Luthikaviboon T, Linpoo S, Rojanathanes R, Prasassarakich P (2011) Improving oxidation stability and mechanical properties of natural rubber vulcanizates filled with calcium carbonate modified by gallic acid. Polym Bull 66:965–977Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balachandran M, Bhagawan SS (2012) Mechanical, thermal, and transport properties of nitrile rubber-nanocalcium carbonate composites. J Appl Polym Sci 126:1983–1992Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG (2008) Studies on mechanical, thermal, and flame retarding properties of polybutadiene rubber (PBR) nanocomposites. Polym Plast Technol Eng 47:72–81Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roy K, Alam MN, Mandal SK, Debnath SC (2015) Effect of sol–gel modified nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the cure, mechanical and thermal properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) nanocomposites. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 73:306–313Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roy K, Alam MN, Mandal SK, Debnath SC (2014) Sol–gel derived nano zinc oxide for the reduction of zinc oxide level in natural rubber compounds. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 70:378–384Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panampilly B, Thomas S (2013) Nano ZnO as cure activator and reinforcing filler in natural rubber. Polym Eng Sci 53:1337–1346Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang Z, Lu Y, Liu J, Dang Z, Zhang L, Wang W (2011) Preparation of nano-zinc oxide/EPDM composites with both good thermal conductivity and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 119:1144–1155Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roy K, Alam MN, Mandal SK, Debnath SC (2016) Development of a suitable nanostructured cure activator system for polychloroprene rubber nanocomposites with enhanced curing, mechanical and thermal properties. Polym Bull 73:191–207Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roy K, Mandal SK, Alam MN, Debnath SC (2016) A comparison between polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polypropylene glycol (PPG) treatment on the properties of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) based natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites. Polym Bull 73:3065–3079Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roy K, Mandal SK, Alam MN, Debnath SC (2016) Impact of surface modification on the properties of sol–gel synthesized nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2)-based styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 77:718–726Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    López-Manchado MA, Valentín JL, Carretero J, Barroso F, Arroyo M (2007) Rubber network in elastomer nanocomposites. Eur Polym J 43:4143–4150Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shimpi NG, Mali AD, Sonawane HA, Mishra S (2014) Effect of nBaCO3 on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of isotactic PP-EPDM blend. Polym Bull 71:2067–2080Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaewsakul W, Sahakaro K, Dierkes WK, Noordermeer JWM (2015) Mechanistic aspects of silane coupling agents with different functionalities on reinforcement of silica-filled natural rubber compounds. Polym Eng Sci 55:836–842Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siriwong C, Sae-Oui P, Sirisinha C (2014) Comparison of coupling effectiveness among amino-, chloro-, and mercapto silanes in chloroprene rubber. Polym Test 38:64–72Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Su J, Chen S, Zhang J, Xu Z (2009) Comparison of cure, mechanical, electric properties of EPDM filled with Sm2O3 treated by different coupling agents. Polym Test 28:235–242Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jiang MJ, Dang ZM, Yao SH, Bai J (2008) Effects of surface modification of carbon nanotubes on the microstructure and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/rubber nanocomposites. Chem Phys Lett 457:352–356Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roy K, Alam MN, Mandal SK, Debnath SC (2014) Surface modification of sol–gel derived nano zinc oxide (ZnO) and the study of its effect on the properties of styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites. J Nanostruct Chem 4:133–142Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Namitha LK, Chameswary J, Ananthakumar S, Sebastian MT (2013) Effect of micro- and nano-fillers on the properties of silicone rubber-alumina flexible microwave substrate. Ceram Int 39:7077–7087Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhou W, Qi S, Tu C, Zhao H, Wang C, Kou J (2007) Effect of the particle size of Al2O3 on the properties of filled heat-conductive silicone rubber. J Appl Polym Sci 104:1312–1318Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nie Y, Huang G, Qu L, Zhang P, Weng G, Wu J (2011) Structural evolution during uniaxial deformation of natural rubber reinforced with nano-alumina. Polym Adv Technol 22:2001–2008Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Konar BB, Roy SK, Pariya TK (2010) Study on the effect of nano and active particles of alumina on natural rubber-alumina composites in the presence of epoxidized natural rubber as compatibilizer. J Macromol Sci Part A Pure Appl Chem 47:416–422Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mohamad N, Muchtar A, Ghazali MJ, Mohd DH, Azhari CH (2010) Correlation of filler loading and silane coupling agent on the physical characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber-alumina nanoparticles composites. J Elastom Plast 42:331–346Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karger-Kocsis J, Lendvai L (2017) Polymer/boehmite nanocomposites: a review. J Appl Polym Sci 134:45573Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li J, Pan Y, Xiang C, Ge Q, Guo J (2006) Low temperature synthesis of ultrafine α-Al2O3 powder by a simple aqueous sol–gel process. Ceram Int 32:587–591Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thongsang S, Sombatsompop N (2006) Effect of NaOH and Si69 treatments on the properties of fly ash/natural rubber composites. Polym Compos 27:30–40Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flory PJ, Rehner JJ (1943) Statistical mechanics of cross-linked polymer networks. II. Swelling. J Chem Phys 11:521–526Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Usuki A, Kawasumi M, Kojima Y, Okada A, Kurauchi T, Kamigaito O (1993) Synthesis of nylon 6-clay hybrid. J Mater Res 8:1179–1184Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bindu P, Thomas S (2013) Viscoelastic behavior and reinforcement mechanism in rubber nanocomposites in the vicinity of spherical nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 117:12632–12648Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parida KM, Pradhan AC, Das J, Sahu N (2009) Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized porous gamma-alumina by control precipitation method. Mater Chem Phys 113:244–248Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Potdar HS, Jun KW, Bae JW, Kim SM, Lee YJ (2007) Synthesis of nano-sized porous γ-alumina powder via a precipitation/digestion route. Appl Catal A 321:109–116Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kalaie MR, Youzbashi AA, Meshkot MA, Hosseini-Nasab F (2016) Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic nickel oxide particles by chemical route. Appl Nanosci 6:789–795Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yu J, Bai H, Wang J, Li Z, Jiao C, Liu Q, Zhang M, Liu L (2013) Synthesis of alumina nanosheets via supercritical fluid technology with high uranyl adsorptive capacity. New J Chem 37:366–372Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Prado LASA, Sriyai M, Ghislandi M, Barros-Timmons A, Schulte K (2010) Surface modification of alumina nanoparticles with silane coupling agents. J Braz Chem Soc 21:2238–2245Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rooj S, Das A, Thakur V, Mahaling RN, Bhowmick AK, Heinrich G (2010) Preparation and properties of natural nanocomposites based on natural rubber and naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes. Mater Des 31:2151–2156Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Surya I, Ismail H, Azura AR (2013) Alkanolamide as an accelerator, filler-dispersant and a plasticizer in silica-filled natural rubber compounds. Polym Test 32:1313–1321Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mali AD, Shimpi NG, Mishra S (2014) Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of surface-modified montmorillonite-reinforced Viton rubber nanocomposites. Polym Int 63:338–346Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science, Faculty of ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials TechnologyChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations