Advertisement

Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 365–386 | Cite as

Properties and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube bio-nanocomposite films: Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

  • Kathiravan SuppiahEmail author
  • Pei Leng Teh
  • Salmah Husseinsyah
  • Rozyanty Rahman
Original Paper
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube (CMC/HNT) bio-nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The effects of HNT content and chemical modification using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposite films were analyzed. Fourier transmission infrared proved the chemical modification of HNT using SDS was successful. Increasing in HNT content had increased the tensile strength at optimum of 10 wt%. The modulus of elasticity and elongation at break were also increased. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites possessed higher mechanical properties compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites. The improvement of dispersion and interfacial interaction of HNT in CMC matrix were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy images. For untreated samples, the XRD results showed that the peak intensity correlated with crystallinity increased and also increased the basal spacing at 10 wt% of HNT in the bio-nanocomposites. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites further increased the peaks intensity and the basal spacing compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites. Meanwhile, the moisture content of SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites is much lower compared to the untreated bio-nanocomposites. The thermal stability of CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposites increased with increasing HNT filler content. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites had higher thermal stability compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites.

Keywords

Carboxymethyl cellulose Halloysite nanotube Bio-nanocomposite films Sodium dodecyl sulfate 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Hambleton A, Voilley A, Debeaufort F (2011) Transport parameters for aroma compounds through i-carrageenan and sodium alginate-based edible films. Food Hydrocoll 25:1128–1133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saremnezhad S, Azizi MH, Barzegar M, Abbasi S, Ahmadi E (2010) Properties of a new edible film made of faba bean protein isolate. J Agric Sci Technol 13:181–192Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lamanna M, Morales NJ, García NL, Goyanes S (2013) Development and characterization of starch nanoparticles by gamma radiation: potential application as starch matrix filler. Carbohydr Polym 97:90–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Souza AC, Goto GE, Mainardi JA, Coelho AC, Tadini CC (2013) Cassava starch composite films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil: antimicrobial activity, microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties. LWT Food Sci Technol 54:346–352.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martins JT, Cerqueira MA, Vicente AA (2012) Influence of α-tocopherol on physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films. Food Hydrocoll 27:220–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rubilar JF, Cruz RM, Silva HD, Vicente AA, Khmelinskii I, Vieira MC (2013) Physico-mechanical properties of chitosan films with carvacrol and grape seed extract. J Food Eng 115:466–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Salvi DT, Barud HS, Caiut JM, Messaddeq Y, Ribeiro SJ (2012) Self-supported bacterial cellulose/boehmite organic–inorganic hybrid films. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 63:211–218.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-012-2678-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perotti GF, Tronto J, Bizeto MA, Izumi C, Temperini ML, Lugao AB, Parra DF, Constantino VR (2014) Biopolymer–clay nanocomposites: cassava starch and synthetic clay cast films. J Braz Chem Soc 25:320–330.  https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20130300 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang H, He P, Hu N, Zeng Y (2003) Electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of myoglobin and hemoglobin incorporated in carboxymethyl cellulose films. Bioelectrochemistry 61:29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1567-5394(03)00057-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bigucci F, Abruzzo A, Vitali B, Saladini B, Cerchiara T, Gallucci MC, Luppi B (2015) Vaginal inserts based on chitosan and carboxymethylcellulose complexes for local delivery of chlorhexidine: preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity. Int J Pharm 478:456–463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    García A, Leonardi D, Piccirilli GN, Mamprin ME, Olivieri AC, Lamas MC (2015) Spray drying formulation of albendazole microspheres by experimental design. In vitro–in vivo studies. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 41:244–252.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2013.858737 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Su JF, Huang Z, Yuan XY, Wang XY, Li M (2010) Structure and properties of carboxymethyl cellulose/soy protein isolate blend edible films crosslinked by Maillard reactions. Carbohydr Polym 79:145–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.07.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arnon H, Zaitsev Y, Porat R, Poverenov E (2014) Effects of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan bilayer edible coating on postharvest quality of citrus fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 87:21–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reddy MM, Vivekanandhan S, Misra M, Bhatia SK, Mohanty AK (2013) Biobased plastics and bionanocomposites: current status and future opportunities. Prog Polym Sci 38:1653–1689.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2013.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khan MU, Reddy KR, Snguanwongchai T, Haque E, Gomes VG (2016) Polymer brush synthesis on surface modified carbon nanotubes via in situ emulsion polymerization. Colloid Polym Sci 294:1599–1610.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00396-016-3922-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reddy KR, Jeong HM, Lee Y, Raghu AV (2010) Synthesis of MWCNTs-core/thiophene polymer-sheath composite nanocables by a cationic surfactant-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization and their structural properties. J Polym Sci A 48:1477–1484.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pola.23883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reddy KR, Sin BC, Ryu KS, Noh J, Lee Y (2009) In situ self-organization of carbon black–polyaniline composites from nanospheres to nanorods: synthesis, morphology, structure and electrical conductivity. Synth Metals 159:1934–1939.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Follain N, Alexandre B, Chappey C, Colasse L, Mederic P, Marais S (2016) Barrier properties of polyamide 12/montmorillonite nanocomposites: effect of clay structure and mixing conditions. Compos Sci Technol 136:18–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2016.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Son DR, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Jeong HM (2016) Compatibility of thermally reduced graphene with polyesters. J Macromol Sci B 55:1099–1110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00222348.2016.1242529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Han SJ, Lee HI, Jeong HM, Kim BK, Raghu AV, Reddy KR (2014) Graphene modified lipophilically by stearic acid and its composite with low density polyethylene. J Macromol Sci B 53:1193–1204.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00222348.2013.879804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choi SH, Kim DH, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Lee HI, Yoon KS, Jeong HM, Kim BK (2012) Properties of graphene/waterborne polyurethane nanocomposites cast from colloidal dispersion mixtures. J Macromol Sci B 51:197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00222348.2011.583193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee YR, Kim SC, Lee HI, Jeong HM, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Kim BK (2011) Graphite oxides as effective fire retardants of epoxy resin. Macromol Res 19:66–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13233-011-0106-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reddy KR, Park W, Sin BC, Noh J, Lee Y (2009) Synthesis of electrically conductive and superparamagnetic monodispersed iron oxide–conjugated polymer composite nanoparticles by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. J Colloid Interface Sci 335:34–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2009.02.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bitinis N, Fortunati E, Verdejo R, Bras J, Kenny JM, Torre L, Lopez-Manchado MA (2013) Poly (lactic acid)/natural rubber/cellulose nanocrystal bionanocomposites. Part II: properties evaluation. Carbohydr Polym 96:621–627.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ismail H, Pasbakhsh P, Fauzi MA, Bakar AA (2008) Morphological, thermal and tensile properties of halloysite nanotubes filled ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) nanocomposites. Polym Test 27:841–850.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2008.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hedicke-Hochstotter K, Lim GT, Altstadt V (2009) Novel polyamide nanocomposites based on silicate nanotubes of the mineral halloysite. Compos Sci Technol 69:330–334.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yuan P, Tan D, Annabi-Bergaya F (2015) Properties and applications of halloysite nanotubes: recent research advances and future prospects. Appl Clay Sci 112:75–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2015.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spitalsky Z, Tasis D, Papagelis K, Galiotis C (2010) Carbon nanotube–polymer composites: chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties. Prog Polym Sci 35:357–401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bee ST, Ratnam CT, Sin LT, Tee TT, Hui D, Kadhum AA, Rahmat AR, Lau J (2014) Effects of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties and nanostructural–morphology of montmorillonite added polyvinyl alcohol composite. Compos Part B Eng 63:141–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Suhas DP, Aminabhavi TM, Raghu AV (2014) para-Toluene sulfonic acid treated clay loaded sodium alginate membranes for enhanced pervaporative dehydration of isopropanol. Appl Clay Sci 101:419–429.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gutierrez MQ, Echeverria I, Ihl M, Bifani V, Mauri AN (2012) Carboxymethylcellulose–montmorillonite nanocomposite films activated with murta (Ugni molinae Turcz) leaves extract. Carbohydr Polym 87:1495–1502.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.09.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yadollahi M, Namazi H, Barkhordari S (2014) Preparation and properties of carboxymethyl cellulose/layered double hydroxide bionanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym 108:83–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee KS, Chang YW (2013) Thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties of poly (ε-caprolactone)/halloysite nanotube nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 128:2807–2816.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.38457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sain M, Suhara P, Law S, Bouilloux A (2005) Interface modification and mechanical properties of natural fiber-polyolefin composite products. J Reinf Plast Compos 24:121–130.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684405041717 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Soheilmoghaddam M, Wahit MU (2013) Development of regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube bionanocomposite films with ionic liquid. Int J Biol Macromol 58:133–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.03.066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    De Silva RT, Pasbakhsh P, Goh KL, Chai SP, Ismail H (2013) Physico-chemical characterisation of chitosan/halloysite composite membranes. Polym Test 32:265–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2012.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schmitt H, Prashantha K, Soulestin J, Lacrampe MF, Krawczak P (2012) Preparation and properties of novel melt-blended halloysite nanotubes/wheat starch nanocomposites. Carbohydr Polym 89:920–927.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.04.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Polymer Engineering, School of Materials EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisJejawiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations