Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 365–386 | Cite as

Properties and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube bio-nanocomposite films: Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

  • Kathiravan SuppiahEmail author
  • Pei Leng Teh
  • Salmah Husseinsyah
  • Rozyanty Rahman
Original Paper


In this study, carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube (CMC/HNT) bio-nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The effects of HNT content and chemical modification using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposite films were analyzed. Fourier transmission infrared proved the chemical modification of HNT using SDS was successful. Increasing in HNT content had increased the tensile strength at optimum of 10 wt%. The modulus of elasticity and elongation at break were also increased. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites possessed higher mechanical properties compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites. The improvement of dispersion and interfacial interaction of HNT in CMC matrix were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy images. For untreated samples, the XRD results showed that the peak intensity correlated with crystallinity increased and also increased the basal spacing at 10 wt% of HNT in the bio-nanocomposites. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites further increased the peaks intensity and the basal spacing compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites. Meanwhile, the moisture content of SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites is much lower compared to the untreated bio-nanocomposites. The thermal stability of CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposites increased with increasing HNT filler content. The SDS-treated bio-nanocomposites had higher thermal stability compared to untreated bio-nanocomposites.


Carboxymethyl cellulose Halloysite nanotube Bio-nanocomposite films Sodium dodecyl sulfate 


Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Polymer Engineering, School of Materials EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisJejawiMalaysia

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