Current Microbiology

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 613–619 | Cite as

Selection of Optimized Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalization in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Cultured in Different Media

  • Xia Yan
  • Qiaoling Zhang
  • Jun Zou
  • Chaozu He
  • Jun TaoEmail author


Black rot is a cruciferous disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and results in significant economic losses worldwide; therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of Xcc pathogenesis is urgently required. In this study, we aimed to select optimized reference genes to verify the relative quantification of virulent genes in Xcc. Xcc strains were cultured in three different media [basic medium (MMX), hrp-inducing medium (MMXC) and rich medium (NYG)] and the expression stability of five candidate genes [thymidylate synthase (thyA), DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA)] was evaluated using BestKeeper, GeNorm, and NormFinder software programs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that two Xcc effector genes were hrpX/hrpG-regulated in MMXC using selected genes as controls. Finally, gyrB and thyA were validated as the optimized reference genes of Xcc cultured in MMXC, and qRT-PCR analysis was demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to Gus-activity detection for the analysis of Xcc expression. This information will be useful in the future studies of Xcc, especially those seeking new functional genes.



This work was supported by the Innovation Subject of Hainan Province (Grant No. B201304) and Priming Scientific Research Foundation of Hainan University (KYQD1546). We thank Dr Bin He [42] for the aid of software programs.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declare that they have no competing interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Tropical Agriculture and ForestryHainan UniversityHaikouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical BioresourcesHaikouChina

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