Lactic Acid Produced by Glycolysis Contributed to Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation Induced by Glucose
- 35 Downloads
High concentration of glucose induces Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) aggregation, but the mechanism of this is still unclear. In this study, the aggregation of S. aureus strains was induced by high concentration of glucose (>7.8 mM), and which was dose- and time-dependent. In addition, the large amount of lactate acid produced during S. aureus aggregation, induced by glucose, resulted in decreased pH value. Lactic acid, the end product of glycolysis, could quickly induce S. aureus aggregation. Except for lactic acid, acetic acid and HCl also induced S. aureus aggregation. In addition, the aggregation of S. aureus strains induced by glucose or lactic acid was completely inhibited in Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.5), and inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose significantly decreased S. aureus aggregation. The aggregation induced by glucose was dispersed by periodate and proteinase K. In summary, lactate acid produced by glycolysis contributed to S. aureus aggregation induced by high concentration of glucose.
This study was supported by the New Xiangya Talent Project of the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (Grant No. JY201713).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 11.Knobloch JK, Bartscht K, Sabottke A, Rohde H, Feucht HH, Mack D (2001) Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis depends on functional RsbU, an activator of the sigB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress. J Bacteriol 183(8):2624–2633. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.183.8.2624-2633.2001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Kanafani ZA, Kourany WM, Fowler VG Jr, Levine DP, Vigliani GA, Campion M, Katz DE, Corey GR, Boucher HW (2009) Clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28(12):1477–1482. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-009-0808-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Baker EH, Janaway CH, Philips BJ, Brennan AL, Baines DL, Wood DM, Jones PW (2006) Hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 61(4):284–289. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2005.051029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Jensen SE, Zukoski J, Benvie AM, Refaai MA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Zuscik MJ, Gill SR, Mooney RA (2017) Adaptive upregulation of clumping factor A (ClfA) by Staphylococcus aureus in the obese, Type 2 diabetic host mediates increased virulence. Infect Immun. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01005-16 Google Scholar