Illumina MiSeq Sequencing Investigation of Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Cecum of the Swine Infected with PRRSV
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant animal morbidity and mortality and economic losses worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), mucosa, and feces in cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform, to investigate the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis and development of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Quantitative insights into microbial ecology analyses indicated that the dominant bacterial groups in the lung from the PRRSV-challenged pigs were Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, with a relative abundance of 35–48% and 27–41%, respectively. Our results were consistent with the clinical observation that the PRRSV-infected pigs are always co-infected with other bacteria, such as Haemophilus and Mycoplasma. On the other hand, Campylobacter and Clostridium became the two most abundant bacteria in the mucosal and luminal microbiota of the cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs, and the relative abundance was four times higher than that in the healthy pigs. This suggested that Campylobacter and Clostridium might be associated with the pathogenesis of diarrhea in PRRS. Linear discriminant analysis effect size reveals significant microbial dysbiosis of BAL, mucosa, and feces in cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs. We have identified a structural imbalance of the microbiota, characterized by a reduced diversity of microbiota and abundance alterations of certain bacteria in the PRRSV-challenged pigs. The observed microbiota dysbiosis in this study provides insight into the roles of the microbiota in the complications of the PRRSV infection.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 81172777 and the Dalian Science and Technological Project under Grant No. 2014B11NC096.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animals used in this study were euthanized as per the protocols approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, Dalian University. Clinical samples (lung, mucosa, and feces) from pigs were collected. The biological agents used in this study were handled as per the Institutional Biosafety Committee, Dalian University. The animal Ethics Committee approval number was DW2017-080.
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