Current Microbiology

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 213–221 | Cite as

Subgingival Microbial Changes During the First 3 Months of Fixed Appliance Treatment in Female Adult Patients

  • Runzhi Guo
  • Hao Liu
  • Xiaobei Li
  • Qiaolin Yang
  • Lingfei Jia
  • Yunfei ZhengEmail author
  • Weiran LiEmail author


Although periodontal diseases during fixed appliance treatment are a common issue, few studies have focused on the clinical and microbial factors associated with orthodontic appliances. Hence, we investigated changes in the subgingival microbial community and their association with periodontal changes at the early stage of fixed appliance treatment. Subgingival plaques from ten female patients with fixed appliances were obtained at three time points: before, 1 month and 3 months after the placement of the brackets (T0, T1 and T2). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community of the subgingival plaque. The Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) were also recorded. The GBI significantly increased at T2, and the PI showed a temporary increase without a significant difference. The alpha diversity indices were stable. However, the beta diversity was significantly higher at T2 compared to T0 and T1. The relative abundance of core microbiomes at the genus level was relatively stable. Four periodontal pathogens at the species level, including Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Campylobacer rectus (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Treponema denticola (Td), increased without significant differences. The subgingival microbial community affected by fixed appliance treatment might cause transient mild gingival inflammation.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsPeking University School and Hospital of StomatologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Central LaboratoryPeking University School and Hospital of StomatologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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