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Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 727–736 | Cite as

Resolution of uveitis

  • Gerhild WildnerEmail author
  • Maria Diedrichs-Möhring
Review

Abstract

Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening, rare disease, potentially leading to blindness. Uveitis is a synonym for intraocular inflammation, presenting as various clinical phenotypes with different underlying immune responses in patients, whereas different animal models usually represent one certain clinical and immunological type of uveitis due to genetic uniformity and the method of disease induction. T cells recognizing intraocular antigens initiate the disease, recruiting inflammatory cells (granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages) to the eyes, which cause the damage of the tissue. The treatment of uveitis so far aims at downregulation of inflammation to protect the ocular tissues from damage, and at immunosuppression to stop fueling T cell reactivity. Uveitis is usually prevented by specific mechanisms of the ocular immune privilege and the blood-eye-barriers, but once the disease is induced, mechanisms of the immune privilege as well as a variety of novel regulatory features including new Treg cell populations and suppressive cytokines are induced to downregulate the ocular inflammation and T cell responses and to avoid relapses and chronicity. Here we describe mechanisms of regulation observed in experimental animal models as well as detected in studies with peripheral lymphocytes from patients.

Keywords

Autoimmunity Eye Immune privilege T cells Cytokines Chemokines 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Stephan Thurau for critically reading the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Immunobiology, Department of OphthalmologyUniversity HospitalMunichGermany

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