γδ T cells in rheumatic diseases: from fundamental mechanisms to autoimmunity

  • Cuong Thach Nguyen
  • Emanual Maverakis
  • Matthias Eberl
  • Iannis E. AdamopoulosEmail author


The innate and adaptive arms of the immune system tightly regulate immune responses in order to maintain homeostasis and host defense. The interaction between those two systems is critical in the activation and suppression of immune responses which if unchecked may lead to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. γδ T cells are non-conventional lymphocytes, which express T cell receptor (TCR) γδ chains on their surface and straddle between innate and adaptive immunity. Recent advances in of γδ T cell biology have allowed us to expand our understanding of γδ T cell in the dysregulation of immune responses and the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on γδ T cells and their roles in skin and joint inflammation as commonly observed in rheumatic diseases.


γδ T cells T cell receptor (TCR) Bone remodeling Autoimmune diseases Skin and joint inflammation Psoriatic arthritis 


Funding information

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Grant R01AR062173, and a National Psoriasis Foundation Translational Research grant to IEA. EM was supported by (1DP2OD008752).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

IEA has received grants, salary, consulting fees from Schering Plough Biopharma/Merck, Novartis, Pfizer and Tanabe Research Labs USA. The authors have no other conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cuong Thach Nguyen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emanual Maverakis
    • 3
  • Matthias Eberl
    • 4
  • Iannis E. Adamopoulos
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.NTT Hi-Tech InstituteNguyen Tat Thanh UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Department of Dermatology, School of MedicineUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Division of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine and Systems Immunity Research InstituteCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  5. 5.Institute for Pediatric Regenerative MedicineShriners Hospitals for Children Northern CaliforniaSacramentoUSA

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