Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 215–225 | Cite as

Two-photon microscopy analysis of leukocyte trafficking and motility

  • Takaharu OkadaEmail author


During the last several years, live tissue imaging, in particular using two-photon laser microscopy, has advanced our understanding of leukocyte trafficking mechanisms. Studies using this technique are revealing distinct molecular requirements for leukocyte migration in different tissue environments. Also emerging from the studies are the ingenious infrastructures for leukocyte trafficking, which are produced by stromal cells. This review summarizes the recent imaging studies that provided novel mechanistic insights into in vivo leukocyte migration essential for immunosurveillance.


Live imaging Leukocyte migration Chemokine Integrin Stromal cells 



I thank Jason Cyster for providing Hy10 mice and CFP mice, Yoshikazu Ando for helping figure preparation, and the reviewers for valuable comments. I also acknowledge Masahiro Kitano, Michiyuki Matsudsa, Yasuo Mori, Tomohiro Kurosaki, and Takashi Saito for their help in setting up the two-photon microscope. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, the Uehara Memorial Foundation, the Sumitomo Foundation, and the Mochida Memorial Foundation for Medical and Pharmaceutical Research,

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Supplementary material

Video 1

Migration of the B cell-T cell conjugate in the stromal cell network in the lymph node. The movie shows the 45-min time lapse images recorded every 30 s. Cognate antigen-specific B cells (green) and helper T cells (red) are stably conjugated. In cyan are primarily irradiation-resistant stromal cells. The mouse lymph node was imaged ex vivo by TPLM 36 h after immunization. Elapsed time is shown as hours/minutes/seconds. The image volume is 100 μm (x) × 100 μm (y) × 60 μm (z). The scale bar shows 30 μm on the nearest x-y plane from the viewpoint (MPG 4.71 MB)


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Unit for Immunodynamics, RIKENResearch Center for Allergy and ImmunologyYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Innovative Techno-Hub for Integrated Medical Bio-imaging, Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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