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MicroRNAs: pivotal regulators in acute myeloid leukemia

  • Mingyu Li
  • Xianglun Cui
  • Hongzai GuanEmail author
Review Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are 19–22 nucleotides in length and regulate a variety of biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNA dysregulation disrupts normal biological processes, resulting in tumorigenesis. Acute myeloid leukemia is an invasive hematological malignancy characterized by the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of immature myeloid cells. Due to the low 5-year survival rate, there is an urgent need to discover novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. In recent years, microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in hematological malignancies by acting as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. MicroRNAs have the potential to be a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. In this review, we summarize the biology of microRNAs and discuss the relationships between microRNA dysregulation and acute myeloid leukemia in the following aspects: signaling pathways, the abnormal biological behavior of acute myeloid leukemia cells, the clinical application of microRNAs and competing endogenous RNA regulatory networks.

Keywords

MicroRNAs Acute myeloid leukemia Leukemogenesis Biomarkers Therapeutic targets ceRNA 

Abbreviations

ALL

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

APL

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

AUC

Area under curve

B-ALL

B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia

BM

Bone marrow

CA-AL

Cytogenetically abnormal acute leukemia

ceRNA

Competing endogenous RNA

circRNAs

Circular RNAs

CLL

Chronic lymphoid leukemia

CN-AML

Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

CR

Complete remission

DFS

Disease-free survival

EFS

Event-free survival

HOXA

The homeobox transcription factor

HSPC

The hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell

LFS

Leukemia-free survival

LncRNAs

Long non-coding RNAs

LSCs

Leukemia stem cells

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MLL

Mixed lineage leukemia

OS

Overall survival

Pri-miRNAs

Primary miRNA transcripts

PMNCs

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

RR

Recurrence rate

T-ALL

T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Notes

Authors’ contributions

HZG provided direction and guidance throughout the preparation of this manuscript. MYL drafted the manuscript. HZG and XLC reviewed and made significant revisions to the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2017MH042).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical HematologyMedical College of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Department of InspectionMedical College of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina

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