Doripenem versus meropenem as first-line empiric therapy of febrile neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia: a prospective, randomized study
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Febrile neutropenia is often observed in patients with hematologic malignancies, especially in those with acute leukemia. Meropenem has potent and broad antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and is recommended as first-line empiric therapy for febrile neutropenia. In contrast, the safety and efficacy of doripenem in patients with febrile neutropenia and hematologic malignancies is limited. In this randomized, prospective, cooperative, open-label trial, we compared doripenem (1.0 g every 8 h) to meropenem (1.0 g every 8 h) as first-line empiric antibacterial treatment of febrile neutropenia. To evaluate efficacy and safety, 133 hospitalized patients with acute leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, who developed febrile neutropenia during or after chemotherapy, were randomized to each drug. Resolution of fever within 3 to 5 days without treatment modification (i.e., the primary endpoint) did not significantly differ between the doripenem and meropenem groups (60.0% vs. 45.6%, respectively; P = 0.136). However, resolution of fever within 7 days of treatment was significantly higher in the doripenem group than in the meropenem group (78.4% vs. 60.2%, respectively; P = 0.037). Similar rates of adverse events (grades 1–2) were observed in both groups. Thus, we conclude that both drugs are safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and that the clinical efficacy of doripenem is noninferior to that of meropenem. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry number: 000006124
KeywordsDoripenem Meropenem Febrile neutropenia Acute leukemia High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome
The authors would like to thank all institutions and staff members that contributed to this study.
YI was the principal investigator and takes primary responsibility for the paper. TO and YI designed the study. YF, NS, TM, YT, IH, and YA recruited the patients. TO, YTF, and SK reviewed and analyzed the data collected from each institute. YA and SI participated in statistical analysis. TO and YI wrote the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
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