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Reappraisal of the classical abdominal anatomical landmarks using in vivo computerized tomography imaging

  • Ruchi Goyal
  • Anjali AggarwalEmail author
  • Tulika Gupta
  • Ajay Gulati
  • Shallu Jaggi
  • S. Ali Mirjalili
  • Daisy Sahni
Original Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

With expanding scope of interventions it becomes mandatory to have correct and evidence-based knowledge of surface anatomy of internal abdominal structures. Information available in text books is derived from work done on cadaveric studies. Current study was designed to provide data of key abdominal surface anatomical landmarks and their variations in living subjects using CT imaging of adult population.

Materials and methods

Cross-sectional study was conducted using 100 abdominopelvic CT scans of patients of Indian origin.

Results

Vertebral levels of origin of celiac trunk varied from T11 to L1/2 intervertebral disc, superior mesenteric artery from T12 to L2, inferior mesenteric artery from L2 to L4 and aortic bifurcation from L3 to L5. Origin of both renal arteries varied between T12 and L2 and the formation of inferior vena cava varied from L3 to L5. Vertebral levels of upper pole of both kidneys ranged from T11 to upper L3. Spleen was related to 9th to 11th ribs in 36% and 10th to 12th ribs in 34% scans. Most common vertebral levels of subcostal plane, planum supracristale and planum intertuberculare noticed were lower L2, L4 and lower L5, respectively.

Conclusions

Data derived from imaging investigations of living subjects and variations from the conventional descriptions observed in the current study might be helpful for clinicians.

Keywords

CT imaging Abdominal landmarks Radiological anatomy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the individuals whose data have been used in the study for the advancement in anatomical knowledge.

Author contributions

RG data collection, manuscript writing. AA designed the study, manuscript writing and editing. TG manuscript writing and editing. AG data collection and standardisation of software used in the study. SJ statistical analysis. SAM designed the study. DS read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This study has not received any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials and methods used in this study or the findings specified in this report.

Ethical standards

This study was approved by the Institutional ethical committee (No: NK/3654/Study/561).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruchi Goyal
    • 1
  • Anjali Aggarwal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tulika Gupta
    • 1
  • Ajay Gulati
    • 2
  • Shallu Jaggi
    • 2
  • S. Ali Mirjalili
    • 3
  • Daisy Sahni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Radiodiagnosis and ImagingPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Anatomy and Medical Imaging Department, Faculty of Medical and Health SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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