Unusual anatomical variation: tetrafurcation of the celiac trunk
The celiac trunk is one of the main sources of vascularization of the supracolic abdominal compartment. It arises from the abdominal aorta, at the level of T12–L1 vertebrae and classically branches into the splenic artery, common hepatic artery, and left gastric artery. We report here an atypical branching pattern of the celiac trunk, found during the dissection of a 60-year-old female’s formalin-fixed cadaver. The atypically celiac trunk gave rise to four branches: a common trunk for left and right inferior phrenic arteries, an accessory left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and a splenogastric trunk. Knowledge in detail about normal anatomy and variation in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk is important in surgical, oncological, and radiological interventional procedures and must be taken into account to avoid possible complications.
KeywordsAnatomy Variation Celiac trunk Phrenic artery Splenogastric trunk
We acknowledge Mihaela Damen who made a drawing of the present case.
LG: dissection, data analysis. NSD: data collection, manuscript writing. MAV: data analysis, data collection, manuscript writing. AMJ: data analysis, data collection, manuscript writing. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The research was conducted ethically in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki).
- 1.Adachi B (1928) Das arteriensystem der Japaner, vol 2. Kenkyusha Press, Kyoto, pp 18–71Google Scholar
- 3.Arey LB (1949) Developmental anatomy. A textbook and laboratory manual of embryology, 5th edn. WB Saunders company, Philadelphia, pp 339–343Google Scholar
- 6.Chitra R (2010) Clinically relevant variations of the coeliac trunk. Singapore Med J 51(3):216–219Google Scholar
- 9.Haller VA (1756) Icones anatomicae in quibus peaecipuae aliquae partes corporis humani delineatae proponuntur et arteriarum potissimum historia continetur. Vandenhoeck, Gottingen, pp 27–36Google Scholar
- 10.Hemanth K, Garg S, Yadav TD, Sahni D, Singh R (2011) Hepato-gastro-phrenic trunk and hepato-spleno-mesenteric trunk: a rare anatomic variation. Trop Gastroenterol 32(1):56–59Google Scholar
- 12.Nonent M, Larroche P, Forlodou P, Senecail B (2001) Celiac-bimesenteric trunk: anatomic and radiologic description–case report. Radiology 220(2):489–491. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.220.2.r01au34489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Standring S (2016) Gray’s anatomy: anatomical basis of clinical practice, 41st edn. Elsevier, New York, p 202Google Scholar
- 16.Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Loukas M (2016) Bergman’s comprehensive encyclopedia of human anatomic variation. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 621–630Google Scholar