The adaption of the bony microstructure of the human glenoid cavity as a result of long-term biomechanical loading
- 22 Downloads
Structural arrangements of the bony microstructure of a joint through adaptational processes are thought to be determined by the biomechanical demands and its changes. Pursuing this theory of “form follows the biomechanical function”, the load distribution of the glenoid cavity, as it is mirrored in its mineralization pattern, should link not only to its thickness distribution, but also will have an impact onto the trabecular network below. To prove and confirm this hypothesis, we analysed the mineral distribution in correlation to the subchondral bone plates thickness and the distribution of architectural parameters of the trabecular network below. Our findings clearly state an inhomogeneous but regular and reproducible mineral distribution pattern in respect to the biomechanical demands and a thickness of the subchondral bone plate which shows a significant correlation (78–93%). As for the trabecular network below, the distribution of the analysed parameters also revealed an inhomogeneous distribution with a regular pattern in correlation to the biomechanical impact. We found distinctive maxima of material distribution and stability (bone volume 79%, plate-like architecture 77%) situated below areas of high long-term load intake. With increasing depth, the trabecular network administers the expression of each structural parameter following the fact that the strain energy gets more and more evenly distributed and changes from a high degree of differentiation just beneath the SBP to a more equal distribution within the deeper areas. After all, the biomechanical situation of a joint directly influences the bony formation of the subchondral bone plate and the trabecular network below.
KeywordsGlenoid cavity Subchondral bone plate Long-term load intake Trabecular architecture Micro-computed tomography
We would like to thank the “Swiss National Science Foundation” for supporting our research with the Grant 316030_133802/1.
SH and MM-G designed the study. The acquisition of data was achieved by TAZ and MT. SH and TAZ were in charge of the analysis and interpretation process of drafting and revising the manuscript. All authors finally approved the submitted version.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence their work.
- 1.Birkenhäger-Frenkel D, Courpron P, Hüpscher E, Clermonts E, Coutinho M, Schmitz P, Meunier P (1988) Age-related changes in cancellous bone structure. A two-dimensional study in the transiliac and iliac crest biopsy sites. Bone Miner 4:197–216Google Scholar
- 4.Carter DR, Beaupré GS (2007) Skeletal function and form: mechanobiology of skeletal development, aging, and regeneration. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 6.Cowin SC (2001) Bone mechanics handbook. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 8.Dempster DW, Compston JE, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR, Parfitt AM (2013) Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 28:2–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Eckstein F, Muller-Gerbl M, Putz R (1992) Distribution of subchondral bone density and cartilage thickness in the human patella. J Anat 180(Pt 3):425–433Google Scholar
- 10.Engelke K, Karolczak M, Lutz A, Seibert U, Schaller S, Kalender W (1999) Micro-CT. Technology and application for assessing bone structure. Der Radiol 39:203–212Google Scholar
- 22.Muller-Gerbl M (1998) The subchondral bone plate. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 141:III–XI (1–134)Google Scholar
- 24.Muller-Gerbl M, Putz R, Hodapp N, Schulte E, Wimmer B (1990) Demonstration of subchondral density pattern using CT-osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) for the assessment of individual joint stress in live patients. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 128:128–133. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1039487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Soslowsky LJ, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU, Mow VC (1992) Articular geometry of the glenohumeral joint. Clin Orthop 285:181–190Google Scholar