The dominant nutrient foramen at the clavicular midshaft: an anatomical study
The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and topography of the dominant nutrient foramen at the clavicle.
317 macerated human clavicles (167 right and 150 left) were available for the study. After detecting the dominant nutrient foramen, the total distance from the sternal surface to the examined nutrient foramen was measured. A foramen index (FI) was used for further data processing.
We detected a dominant foramen in 300/317 (94.64%) clavicles, which was located in the middle third in 287/300 (95.7%) clavicles. The average clavicular length was measured at 14.9 cm ± 1.0 cm (range 11.6–17.5 cm) with an average foraminal distance from the sternoclavicular joint surface of 7.9 cm ± 1.3 cm (range 0.9–12.6 cm) in total. The mean FI was 53.2% ± SD 7.4% (range 5.5–79.3%).
The present study provides a topographic mapping of the foraminal area (46–60% of the total clavicular length). The findings help to assess clavicular fracture patterns, which pass through the foraminal area.
KeywordsClavicula Fracture Nutrient foramen Blood supply Complication Fracture pattern Non-union Mal-union
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors, their immediate family, and any research foundation with which they are affiliated did not receive any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article.
The Ethics Commission of the Faculty of Medicine of Cologne University has approved the study.
- 1.Fischer LP, JP C (1978) Vascularisation artérielle des os chez l’homme. Bull Assoc Anat 62:419–454Google Scholar
- 2.Freyschmidt J, Sternberg A, Brossmann J (2003) Borderlands of normal and early pathological findings in skeletal radiography, 5th edn. Thieme, New York, pp 305–318Google Scholar
- 10.Murlimanju BV, Prashanth KU, Prabhu LV et al (2011) Morphological and topographical anatomy of nutrient foramina in human upper limb long bones and their surgical importance. Rom J Morphol Embryol 52:859–862Google Scholar
- 11.Mysorekar VR, Nandedkar AN (1979) Diaphysial nutrient foramina in human phalanges. J Anat 128:315–322Google Scholar
- 12.Nagel A (1993) The clinical significance of the nutrient artery. Orthop Rev 22:557–561Google Scholar
- 13.Patake SM, Mysorekar VR (1977) Diaphysial nutrient foramina in human metacarpals and metatarsals. J Anat 124:299–304Google Scholar