The effect of differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior tibial ligament on ankle braking function: a simulation study
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The aim was to clarify the effect of differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior tibial ligament (ATFL) on ankle braking function.
The study sample included 81Japanese cadavers. ATFLs were categorized as: Type I with one fiber bundle; Type II with two fiber bundles that were completely separated; and Type III with three fiber bundles. Three-dimensional reconstructions of a single specimen from each category were then created. These were used to simulate and calculate ATFL strain during dorsiflexion (20°) and plantarflexion (30°) on the talocrural joint axis and inversion (20°) on the subtalar joint axis.
Almost all types of superior fiber lines were stretched with dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Regardless of Type, the inferior fiber line was shortened with plantarflexion and stretched with dorsiflexion. The inferior fiber bundle of Type III was shortened only at plantarflexion 30° and inversion 20°, but in all others it was stretched.
The results suggest that Type III was weaker than Type I and Type II in terms of ankle plantarflexion and inversion braking function.
KeywordsLateral ankle ligament injury Ankle inversion restriction Lateral ankle ligament complex
The authors would like to acknowledge and thank those anonymous individuals who generously donated their bodies so that this study could be performed. This study was supported by a Research Activity Young B Grant (17K13072) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid program from Niigata University of Health and Welfare (H30B05).
ME and TT contributed to study design and data correction, and drafted the manuscript; TI and TK contributed to data analysis and made critical revisions to the manuscript; WI, EN, RH, MI and FK made critical revisions to the manuscript; IK supervised the study, contributed to analysis and interpretation of data, and made critical revisions to the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript prior to submission.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The methods were carried out in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and the cadavers were legally donated for the research by the Nippon Dental University of Life Dentistry at Niigata in Japan.
Informed consent was obtained from the families of all subjects.
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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