Growth pattern of temporal bone pneumatization: a computed tomography study with consecutive age groups
To investigate the growth pattern of temporal bone pneumatization (TBP) in consecutive age groups from birth to 18 years old using 3D air-density reconstruction of high-resolution CT (HRCT).
A total of 570 patients under 18 years old who performed temporal bone HRCT and with no structural abnormalities on both sides were included. Nineteen groups were created to represent consecutive ages, with 15 males and 15 females in each group. Volume rendering of air density was performed using a segmentation threshold of − 200 HU to obtain TBP volume of each side. The differences in TBP between the sides, sexes, and ages were statistically analyzed.
The mean volume of TBP was measured as 1.17 ± 0.44 ml in patients less than 1 year old and 6.81 ± 1.93 ml as adult size. High consistencies of TBP volume between different sides or sexes were found in most of age groups. Significant differences were shown between sides only in 9- and 11-year-old female groups (p9 = 0.031, p11 = 0.016) while between sexes only in 6- and 16-year-old groups (p6 = 0.001, p16 = 0.043), although the volume was larger in all the male groups older than 6 years. The curve drawn by the mean volume in consecutive age groups showed that TBP continued to grow linearly in both males and females until they reached 14 years old. The corresponding linear regression equations were as follows: ym = 1.553 + 0.370x, (x ≤ 14 years, R2 = 0.596); yf = 1.561 + 0.304x, (x ≤ 14 years, R2 = 0.565).
The TBP volume shows a linear growth pattern from birth until reaching adult size after 14 years old.
KeywordsTemporal bone Ear, middle Image processing, Computer-assisted Tomography, X-ray computed Infant Child Adolescent
PZ: project development, data collection, and manuscript writing. Heyu Ding: data collection and manuscript editing. HL: data collection. JL: data analysis. XL: manuscript editing. ZY: manuscript editing. Z W: project development and data management.
This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81701644), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant number 7172064), Beijing Training Project for the Leading Talents in S & T (Grant number Z141107001514002), Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals’ Mission Plan, and Beijing Scholar 2015 (Grant number SML20150101).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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