No-Touch Multi-bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Subcapsular Hepatocellular Carcinoma ≤ 5 cm Not Puncturable via the Non-tumorous Liver Parenchyma
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The percutaneous ablation of subcapsular hepatocellular carcinoma (S-HCC) may involve a risk of complications such as hemorrhage and tumor seeding, mainly linked to the direct tumor puncture often inevitable with mono-applicator ablation devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of no-touch multi-bipolar radiofrequency ablation (NTMBP-RFA) for the treatment of S-HCC ≤ 5 cm not puncturable via the non-tumorous liver parenchyma.
Materials and methods
Between September 2007 and December 2014, 58 consecutive patients (median age: 63 years [46–86], nine females) with 59 S-HCC ≤ 5 cm (median diameter: 25 mm [10–50 mm]), not puncturable via the non-tumorous liver parenchyma, were treated with NTMBP-RFA. Response and follow-up were assessed by CT or MRI. Complications were graded using the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe classification. Overall local tumor progression (OLTP)-free survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. A Cox proportional model evaluated the factors associated with OLTP. Signs of peritoneal or parietal tumor seeding were noted during follow-up imaging studies.
A complete ablation was achieved in 57/58 patients (98.3%) after one (n = 51) or two (n = 6) procedures. Three patients (5.2%) experienced complications (sepsis, cirrhosis decompensation; CIRSE grade 2 or 3). After a median follow-up period of 30.5 months [1–97], no patients had tumor seeding. The 1, 2 and 3-year OLTP-free survival rates were 98%, 94% and 91%, respectively. No factors were associated with OLTP.
NTMBP-RFA is a safe and effective treatment for S-HCC not puncturable via the non-tumorous liver parenchyma.
KeywordsHepatocellular carcinoma Multi-bipolar radiofrequency ablation Neoplasm seeding No-touch technique Subcapsular tumor
This study was not supported by any funding.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Thisstudy has obtained approval from IRB and the need for informed consent was waived.
Consent for Publication
For this type of study, consent for publication is not required
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