Short-range order in Li–Al tourmalines: IR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis and a bond valence theory approach

  • Yuliya BronzovaEmail author
  • Miriam Babushkina
  • Olga Frank-Kamenetskaya
  • Oleg Vereshchagin
  • Ira Rozhdestvenskaya
  • Anatoly Zolotarev
Original Paper


The short-range order in Li–Al–(OH, F) tourmalines with Y[Li/Al] ≈ 1 and different Na/Ca ratio was investigated by means of bond valence theory, experimental IR spectroscopic data and the results of X-ray single crystal diffraction. The stability of the arrangements coordinating W- and V-crystallographic sites occupied by OH, F and O2− ions was refined. A unified model of assignment of absorption bands in the IR spectra to the local arrangements (clusters) was suggested taking into account the first and the second OHcoordination spheres. The types of local cation arrangements around the W- and V-anion sites, alongside with clusters ratio and their distribution were brought out. The short-range order in Li–Al tourmalines controlled not only by local restrictions of the bond valence theory, but also by the long-range order was described.


Li–Al tourmaline Short-range ordering Bond valence theory Infrared spectroscopy X-ray single crystal diffraction 



This work was supported by the President of Russian Federation grant for leading scientific schools (No. NSh-3079.2018.5).


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology of Russian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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