Advertisement

In situ TEM observations of plastic deformation in quartz crystals

  • 653 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

With in situ nanocompression experiments in a transmission electron microscope, we investigated plastic deformation in natural quartz crystals and observed both dislocation plasticity as well as mechanical twinning. Through this experimental method, we are able to provide direct evidence of Dauphiné twin nucleation and could measure the intrinsic twinning stress. The twinning phenomena appear to include a memory effect, where the same twin can reappear upon successive loading and unloading events. The data provide insight into this twin generation mechanism and can be used as a benchmark for the use of twins in quartz for paleopiezometry. Together, the observation of room-temperature dislocation plasticity and reversible twinning adds new insight into the extensive field of quartz plasticity and demonstrates the usefulness of small-scale testing techniques for mineral physics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Anthony TR, Banholzer WF, Fleisher JF (1990) Thermal diffusivity of isotopically enriched 12C diamond. Phys Rev B 42:1104–1111

  2. Ardell AJ, Christie JM, Mccormick JW (1974) Dislocation images in quartz and the determination of Burgers vectors. Philos Mag 29:1399–1411

  3. Barber DJ, Wenk H-R (1991) Dauphiné twinning in deformed quartzites: implications of an in situ TEM study of the α-β phase transformation. Phys Chem Miner 17:492–502

  4. Berger MJ, Coursey JS, Zucker MA, Chang J (2005) The ESTAR program. National Institute of Standards and Technology. http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Star/Text/ESTAR.html. Accessed 27 Feb 2014

  5. Buergmann R, Dresen G (2008) Rheology of the lower crust and upper mantle: evidence from rock mechanics, geodesy, and field observations. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:531–567

  6. Bunde RL, Jarvi EJ, Rosentreter JJ (1998) Piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors. Talanta 46:1223–1236

  7. Christian JW, Mahajan S (1995) Deformation twinning. Prog Mater Sci 39:1–157

  8. Cottrell AH, Bilby BA (1951) A mechanism for the growth of deformation twins in crystals. Philos Mag Ser 7(42):573–581

  9. Das G, Mitchell TE (1974) Electron irradiation damage in quartz. Radiat Eff Defects Solids 23:49–52

  10. Deneen J, Mook WM, Minor AM, Gerberich WW, Carter CB (2006) In situ deformation of silicon nanospheres. J Mater Sci 41:4477–4483

  11. Edwards H, Taylor L, Duncan W (1997) Fast, high-resolution atomic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork as actuator and sensor. J Appl Phys 82:980–984

  12. Ge D, Minor AM, Stach EA, Morris JW (2006) Size effects in the nanoindentation of silicon at ambient temperature. Philos Mag 86:4069–4080

  13. Griggs D (1967) Hydrolytic weakening of quartz and other silicates. Geophys J R Astron Soc 14:19–31

  14. Griggs DT, Blacic JD (1965) Quartz: anomalous weakness of synthetic crystals. Science 147:292–295

  15. Hahn T, Klapper H (2003) Twinning of crystals. In: Authier A (ed) International tables for crystallography, vol D. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 393–448

  16. Han XD, Zhang YE, Zheng K, Zhang XN, Zhang Z, Hao YJ, Guo XY, Yuan J, Wang ZL (2007) Low-temperature in situ large strain plasticity of ceramic SiC nanowires and its atomic-scale mechanism. Nano Lett 7:452–457

  17. Jacob D, Cordier PA (2010) Precession electron diffraction study of alpha, beta phases and Dauphiné twin in quartz. Ultramicroscopy 110:1166–1177

  18. Jian SR, Sung TH, Huang JC, Juang JY (2012) Deformation behaviors of InP pillars under uniaxial compression. Appl Phys Lett 101:151905

  19. Kanamori H, Fujii N, Mizutani NH (1968) Thermal diffusivity measurement of rock-forming minerals from 300° to 1100°K. J Geophys Res 73:595–605

  20. Keith ML, Tuttle OF (1952) Significance of variance in the high low inversion of quartz. Am J Sci Bowen 253:203–279

  21. Kurimura S, Harada M, Muramatsu K, Ueda M, Adachi M, Yamada T, Ueno T (2011) Quartz revisits nonlinear optics: twinned crystal for quasi-phase matching [invited]. Opt Mater Express 1:1367–1375

  22. Markgraaff J (1986) Elastic behavior of quartz during stress induced Dauphiné twinning. Phys Chem Miner 13:102–112

  23. McLaren AC, Phakey PP (1969) Diffraction contrast from Dauphiné twin boundaries in quartz. Phys Status Solidi 31:723–737

  24. McSkimin HJ, Andreatch PJ, Thurston RN (1965) Elastic moduli of quartz versus hydrostatic pressure at 25° and −195.8°C. J Appl Phys 36:1624–1632

  25. Minor AM, Lilleodden ET, Jin M, Stach EA, Chrzan DC, Morris JW Jr (2005) Room temperature dislocation plasticity in silicon. Philos Mag 85:323–330

  26. Minor AM, Morris JW, Stach EA (2011) Quantitative in situ nanoindentation in an electron microscope. Appl Phys Lett 79:1625–1627

  27. Östlund F, Rzepiejewska-Malyska K, Leifer K, Hale LM, Tang Y, Ballarini R, Gerberich WW, Michler J (2009) Brittle-to-ductile transition in uniaxial compression of silicon pillars at room temperature. Adv Funct Mater 19:2439–2444

  28. Östlund F, Howieb PR, Ghislenia R, Korteb S, Leiferc K, Cleggb WJ, Michlera J (2011) Ductile–brittle transition in micropillar compression of GaAs at room temperature. Philos Mag 91:1190–1199

  29. Ronov AB, Yaroshevsky AA (1969) Chemical composition of Earth’s crust. Geophys Monogr Ser 13:37–57

  30. Schubnikow A (1930) Ueber Schlagfiguren des Quarzes. Z Kristallogr 74:103–104

  31. Schubnikow A, Zinserling K (1932) Ueber die Schlag- und Druckfiguren und ueber die mechanischen Quarzzwillinge. Z Kristallogr 83:243–264

  32. Shan ZW, Mishra RK, Asif SAS, Warren OL, Minor AM (2008) Mechanical annealing and source-limited deformation in submicrometre-diameter Ni crystals. Nat Mater 7:115–119

  33. Thomas LA, Wooster WA (1951) Piezocrescence—the growth of Dauphiné twinning in quartz under stress. Proc R Soc Lond A 208:43–62

  34. Tichy J, Erhart J, Kittinger E, Privratska J (2010) Fundamentals of piezoelectric sensorics. Springer, Heidelberg

  35. Trepmann CA, Spray JG (2005) Planar microstructures and Dauphiné twins in shocked quartz from the Charlevoix impact structure, Canada. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 384:315–328

  36. Tullis J (1970) Quartz: preferred orientation in rocks produced by Dauphiné twinning. Science 168:1342–1344

  37. Tullis J, Tullis T (1972) Preferred orientation of quartz produced by mechanical Dauphiné twinning: thermodynamics and axial experiments. Geophys Monogr Ser 16:67–82

  38. Uchic MD, Dimiduk DM, Florando JN, Nix WD (2004) Sample dimensions influence strength and crystal plasticity. Science 305:986–989

  39. Van Tendeloo G, Van Landuyt J, Amelickx S (1976) The α-β phase transition in quartz and AlPO4 as studied by electron microscopy and diffraction. Phys Status Solidi (a) 33:723–735

  40. Wenk HR, Barton N, Bortolotti M, Vogel SC, Voltolini M, Lloyd GE, Gonzalez GB (2006) Dauphiné twinning and texture memory in polycrystalline quartz. Part 1: experimental deformation of novaculite. Phys Chem Miner 33:667–676

  41. Wenk HR, Bortolotti M, Barton N, Oliver E, Brown D (2007) Dauphiné twinning and texture memory in polycrystalline quartz. Part 2: in situ neutron diffraction compression experiments. Phys Chem Miner 34:599–607

  42. Wenk HR, Janssen C, Kenkmann T, Dresen G (2011) Mechanical twinning in quartz: shock experiments, impact, pseudotachylites and fault breccias. Tectonophysics 510:69–79

  43. Wooster WA, Wooster N (1946) Control of electrical twinning in quartz. Nature 157:406

  44. Ye J, Mishra RK, Sachdev AK, Minor AM (2011) In situ TEM compression testing of Mg and Mg-0.2 wt.% Ce single crystals. Scr Mater 64:292–295

  45. Yu Q, Qi L, Chen K, Mishra RK, Li J, Minor AM (2012) The nanostructured origin of deformation twinning. Nano Lett 12:887–892

  46. Zheng K, Wang C, Cheng YQ, Yue Y, Han X, Zhang Z, Shan Z, Mao SX, Ye M, Yin Y, Ma E (2010) Electron-beam-assisted superplastic shaping of nanoscale amorphous silica. Nat Commun 1:1–8

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge support of the National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under Contact # DE-AC02-05CH11231. ET was supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad and “Nanotechnology Platform” (Project No. 12024046) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. HRW acknowledges support from National Science Foundation (EAR 1343908) and DOE-BES (DE-FG02-05ER15637). We would like to acknowledge comments by Alan Ardell and also an anonymous reviewer who helped to improve the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to H.-R. Wenk or A. M. Minor.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Movie S1. Dauphiné twinning of a quartz pillar in the first compression, corresponding to Fig. 1. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second (MOV 2154 kb)

Movie S2. Dauphiné twinning of a quartz pillar in the second compression, corresponding to Fig. 2. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second (MOV 2112 kb)

Movie S3. Deformation of a pillar by dislocation slip, corresponding to Fig. 3. The movie was recorded at 10 frames per second. Playback is at five times the recoding speed (MOV 1091 kb)

Movie S4. Amorphization of a pillar during compression, corresponding to Fig. 4. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second. Playback is at five times the recoding speed (MOV 872 kb)

Movie S1. Dauphiné twinning of a quartz pillar in the first compression, corresponding to Fig. 1. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second (MOV 2154 kb)

Movie S2. Dauphiné twinning of a quartz pillar in the second compression, corresponding to Fig. 2. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second (MOV 2112 kb)

Movie S3. Deformation of a pillar by dislocation slip, corresponding to Fig. 3. The movie was recorded at 10 frames per second. Playback is at five times the recoding speed (MOV 1091 kb)

Movie S4. Amorphization of a pillar during compression, corresponding to Fig. 4. The movie was recorded at 15 frames per second. Playback is at five times the recoding speed (MOV 872 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tochigi, E., Zepeda-alarcon, E., Wenk, H. et al. In situ TEM observations of plastic deformation in quartz crystals. Phys Chem Minerals 41, 757–765 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00269-014-0689-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Quartz
  • Dauphiné twinning
  • Dislocations
  • Amorphization
  • In situ compression
  • Transmission electron microscopy