Efficacy of Hepatic Segmental Visualization Using Indocyanine Green Photodynamic Eye Imaging
To clarify the usefulness of identification of hepatic segmentation stained with an indocyanine green–photodynamic eye (ICG–PDE) system, we sequentially investigated the matching of visualization during hepatectomy in 40 patients at two institutions between 2009 and 2017.
A low dose of ICG was administered into the portal flow to stain the estimated segments of the liver to be resected during hepatectomy, and segmentation images were observed using a PDE camera. Intraoperative ICG–PDE could be carried out for all patients without side effects.
Complete segmental identification of the liver by blue dye stain and ICG–PDE was achieved in 30 (75%) and 35 (88%) patients, respectively, but the prevalence between them was not significantly different (p = 0.302). ICG–PDE segmentation in the estimated area was incomplete in three patients, and complete failure (no staining) was observed in two patients. The border between the posterior section and the caudate was identified in two patients.
This preliminary study showed ICG–PDE to be a useful tool for clearly determining liver segmentation to estimate the area for resection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent for data collection was obtained by the opt-out procedures for 1 month.
Supplementary material 1 (WMV 3310 kb)