Risk Factors for Late-Onset Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage After Pancreatoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Cancer
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Late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) occasionally occurs repeatedly or leads to a serious condition. This retrospective study aimed to clarify its frequency and pathogenesis.
A total of 147 consecutive patients who underwent PD for pancreatic cancer between 2006 and 2014 were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage on postoperative day 100 or later. Furthermore, recurrence and portal vein (PV) hemodynamics were thoroughly reevaluated by computed tomography.
Eleven patients experienced late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The bleeding sites were gastrojejunostomy in four patients, choledochojejunostomy in two, transverse colic marginal vein in one, and unknown in four. The median occurrence time of late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage was 13.3 months after PD. PV occlusion (63.6 vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001), no patency of PV–splenic vein (SPV) confluence (54.5 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002), and SPV ligation (36.4 vs. 9.6%; p = 0.025) were found to be significant risk factors for late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Among 11 patients who experienced late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 7 had PV occlusion and 6 had local recurrence.
Our data suggested for the first time that both oncologic and non-oncologic factors might contribute to late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage after PD for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, PV occlusion, no PV–SPV patency, and SPV ligation were found to be significant risk factors for late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Therefore, to prevent late-onset gastrointestinal hemorrhage, we must consider various approaches to maintain the patency of the PV and SPV.
This study was supported in part by Nara Medical University Grant-in-Aid for Collaborative Research Projects.
Sources of funding for research and/or publication: This study was supported in part by Nara Medical University Grant-in-Aid for Collaborative Research Projects.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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