Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 507–519 | Cite as

A Macromarketing View of Sustainable Development in Vietnam

  • Clifford J. ShultzEmail author
  • Mark Peterson
Article

Abstract

The authors apply methods and perspectives from several disciplines to explore the effects of Vietnam's economic development on various ecosystems, to offer a macromarketing view of sustainable development in Vietnam. An adapted version of the Sustainable Society Index was used to assess Vietnam's sustainability, how Vietnam's measures compare to other countries, with implications for future sustainable-development. Among several findings, Vietnam earns favorable sustainability ratings in absolute terms for water resources, healthy living, energy use, greenhouse gases, genuine savings, and employment. Ominously, Vietnam and some of its nearby neighbors post poor scores for energy savings and education. Going forward, energy savings, a well-educated population, and a coordinated marketing system will be required to ensure favorable sustainability measures. Drawing on macromarketing explorations of complex and interdependent systems, key factors are considered to redress unsustainable resource exploitation and degradation. Particular attention is given to the complexities and dilemmas inherent to waterways, such as the Mekong River Basin and Delta. The authors argue for multi-win goals, systemic understanding, stakeholder inclusion, and resolutions via cooperation and constructive engagement—including projects, products, services, and institutional leadership for best practices designed and administered to enhance sustainability and citizen/societal well-being.

Keywords

Vietnam Sustainability Economic Development Constructive Engagement Complex Systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Professor Tham Hoang and Professor Bryan Brooks, Senior Editor, and the anonymous reviewers for their support and help during the formative stages of the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors received some financial support from Ha Tinh University to attend the International Conference on Environmental Management & Sustainable Development, at which many of the ideas articulated in this article were shared.

References

  1. Aristotle (1976) The politics of Aristotle. Arno Press, New York, 4th CBC Books I–VGoogle Scholar
  2. Anwar S, Nguyen LP (2010) Foreign direct investment and economic growth in Vietnam. Asia Pac Bus Rev 16:183–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumol WJ, Litan RE, Schramm CJ (2007) Good capitalism, bad capitalism and the economics of growth and prosperity. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bui DD, Fenn M, Digregorio M, Du TTL (2015) Ground water in Vietnam: The problems we can’t see, Ha Noi: Vietnam Water Cooperative Initiative. http://vaci.org.vn/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=50:groundwater-in-vietnam-the-problems-we-can%E2%80%99t-see-p1&Itemid=144. Accessed 20 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  5. Cateora P, Gilly M, Graham J (2011) International marketing, 15th edn. McGraw-Hill Irwin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2017a) CIA factbook. Guide to country comparisons. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/. Accessed 25 Oct 2017
  7. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2017b). World factbook: Vietnam. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html. Accessed 1 May 2017Google Scholar
  8. Chanh T (2017) Tra fish shipments to Spain decline steeply. The Saigon Times, 7 April 2017 http://english.thesaigontimes.vn/53346/Tra-fish-shipments-to-Spain-decline-steeply.html. Accessed 24 Oct 2017
  9. Chheang V, Wong Y (2016) Cambodia-Laos-Vietnam: economic reform and regional integration, Working paper. Cambodia Institute for Cooperation and Peace. http://www.aseancenter.org.tw/upload/files/201209073-1.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2017
  10. Dapice D (2008) Reviews and communication: what do we know about economic development? J Macromarket 28:413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dapice D (2012) Comments on economic, business, and resource dynamics in Vietnam and the Greater Mekong Subregion, 7 January, Harvard-Fulbright Economics Teaching Program, Ho Chi Minh CityGoogle Scholar
  12. Dapice D, Perkins D, Nguyen XT, Vu TTA, Huynh TD, Pincus J, Saich T, Wilkinson B (2008) Choosing success: The lessons of East and Southeast Asia and Vietnam’s future. Harvard University, Cambridge, www.innovations.harvard.edu/cache/documents/982/98251.pdf. Accessed 9 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  13. Dawes R (1980) Social dilemmas. Annu Rev Psychol 31:169–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dimitri C, Effland A, Conklin N (2005) The 20th century transformation of U.S. agriculture and farm policy. USDA Electronic Information Bulletin Number 3. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib3/eib3.htm. Accessed 20 Apr 2017
  15. Dollar D, Litvack J (1998) Macroeconomic reform and poverty reduction in Vietnam. Househ Welf Vietnam’s Transit 1:1–28Google Scholar
  16. Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (2017) Constitution and political system. http://vietnamembassy-usa.org/vietnam/politics. Accessed 28 Apr 2017
  17. Environmental Sustainability (2017) Objective/Mission statement. http://www.springer.com/environment/environmental+management/journal/267. Accessed 10 Apr 2017
  18. Fawthrop T (2016) Killing the Mekong, dam by dam. The diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2016/11/killing-the-mekong-dam-by-dam/. Accessed 28 Nov 2016Google Scholar
  19. Fisk G (1981) An invitation to participate in affairs of the Journal of Macromarketing. J Macromarket 1:3–6Google Scholar
  20. Freedom House (2017) Freedom in the world. https://freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world. Accessed 6 May 2017
  21. General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2017) Report on Labour Force Survey, Quarter 1, 2017. http://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=515&idmid=5&ItemID=18434. Accessed 9 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  22. Ghosh P (2013) Vietnam: a police state where one-in-six works for security forces. International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.com. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  23. Grondona M (2000) A cultural typology of economic development. In: Harrison L, Huntington S (eds) Culture matters: How values shape human progress. Basic Books, New York, pp 44–55Google Scholar
  24. Hardin G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hausmann R (2001) Prisoners of geography. Foreign Policy. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3183225. Accessed 25 Apr 2017
  26. Hoang L (2017) Vietnam’s environmental movement arises from fish kill, 8 March 2017, Bloomberg News. https://www.bna.com/vietnams-environmental-movement-n57982084928/. Accessed 29 Apr 2017
  27. Hoang N (2000) Viet Nam. The Ethnic Cultures Publishing House, Ha NoiGoogle Scholar
  28. Hodal K (2017) Hanoi is choking on the fumes of 5m motorbikes, but can ban break its habit? The Guardian, 22 July 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/jul/22/hanoi-motorcycles-ban-2030-pollution-transport. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  29. Hunt S, Burnett J (1982) The macromarketing/micromarketing dichotomy: a taxonomical model. J Mark 46:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. IMF (2016) World Economic Outlook Database–October 2016. http://www.imf.org/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017Google Scholar
  31. Ives M(2016) Outrage over fish kill in Vietnam simmers 6 months later. NY (Print) 201:6. 3 Oct https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/04/world/asia/formosa-vietnam-fish.html. Accessed 29 Sept 2017Google Scholar
  32. Jamieson N (1995) Understanding Vietnam. University of California Press, BerkeleyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Karnow S (1997) Vietnam: A history. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerk G, Manuel A (2013) Sustainable society foundation. http://www.ssfindex.com/. Accessed 27 Mar 2015
  35. Khanna T, Palepu K, Bullock R (2009) House of Tata: Acquiring a global footprint. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, Harvard Business School case 9-708-446Google Scholar
  36. Layton R (2009) On economic growth, marketing systems, and the quality of life. J Macromarket 29:349–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Layton R (2015) Formation, growth, and adaptive change in marketing systems. J Macromarket 35:302–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee M, Mather M (2008) US labor force trends 63(2). Population Reference Bureau, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. McPherson M, Le T (2017) Challenges and opportunities for agriculture and the environment in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Policy brief for the Lower Mekong Public Policy Initiative, Fulbright University Vietnam, Harvard University Ash Institute and USAID, Ho Chi Minh CityGoogle Scholar
  40. Mekong River Commission (2017) Mekong River Commission for Sustainable Development. http://www.mrcmekong.org/. Accessed 15 Feb 2017
  41. Meng J (2015) Sustainability: a framework of typology based on efficiency and effectiveness. J Macromarket 35:84–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Messick D, Brewer M (1983) Solving social dilemmas: A review. Rev Personal Social Psychol 4:11–44Google Scholar
  43. Mittelstaedt J, Shultz C, Kilbourne W, Peterson M (2014) Sustainability as megatrend: Two schools of macromarketing thought. J Macromarket 34:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nguyen D (2015) A critical review on energy efficiency and conservation policies and programs in Vietnam. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nguyen H, Pham H (2012) The dark side of development in Vietnam: Lessons from the killing of the Thi Vai River. J Macromarket 32:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nguyen N (2001) Vietnam and the sustainable development of the Mekong River Basin. Water Sci Technol 45:261–266Google Scholar
  47. Nguyen M, Rahtz D, Shultz C (2014) Tourism as catalyst for quality of life in transitioning subsistence marketplaces: Perspectives from Ha Long, Vietnam. J Macromarket 34:28–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ostrom E (1990) Governing the commons. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ostrom E (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325:419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ostrom E (2012) The future of the commons. The Institute for Economic Affairs, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Peters S, Heynckes C (2017) Saving the Mekong Delta. Dev Coop 4:28. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/climate-change-threatening-livelihood-many-people-along-vietnams-coast. Accessed 22 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  52. Peterson M (2013) Sustainable enterprise: A macromarketing approach. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Porter M (2000) Attitudes, values, beliefs, and the microeconomics of prosperity. In: Harrison L, Huntington S (ed.) Culture matters. Basic Books, New York, pp 14–28Google Scholar
  54. Quynh N (2017) The untapped potential of renewable energy in Vietnam. Vietnam Econ News 18:4–5Google Scholar
  55. Sachs J (2006) The end of poverty. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Shultz C (2007) Macromarketing. In: Gundlach G, Block L, Wilkie W (eds) Explorations of Marketing in Society. ITP/South-Western Publishers, for the American Marketing Association, Cincinnati, pp 766–784Google Scholar
  57. Shultz C (2012) Vietnam: Political economy; marketing system. J Macromarket 32:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shultz C (2015) The ethical imperative of constructive engagement in a world confounded by the commons dilemma, social traps, and geopolitical conflicts. In: Nill A (eds) Handbook on ethics in marketing. Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA, pp 188–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shultz C, Deshpandé R, Cornwell TB, Ekici A, Kothandaraman P, Peterson M, Shapiro S, Talukdar D, Veeck A (2012) Marketing and public policy: Transformative research in developing markets. J Public Policy Mark 31:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shultz C, Holbrook M (1999) Marketing and the tragedy of the commons: A synthesis, commentary, and analysis for action. J Public Policy Mark 18:218–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shultz C, Pecotich A (1997) Marketing and development in the transition economies of Southeast Asia: Policy explication, assessment and implications. J Public Policy Mark 16:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shultz C, Pecotich A, Le K (1994) Changes in marketing activity and consumption in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Res Consum Behav 7:225–257Google Scholar
  63. Shultz C, Rahtz D, Sirgy J (2017) Distinguishing flourishing from distressed communities: Vulnerability, resilience and a systemic framework to facilitate well-being. In: Phillips R, Wong C (eds) The handbook of community well-being. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 403–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Simkins T, Peterson M (2016) Assessing the value of a societal-level sustainability index for macromarketing research. J Macromarket 36:78–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smallteacher R (2016) Formosa plastics admits Vietnam steel plant caused massive fish kill, 4 July 2016, CorpWatch. http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=16080. Accessed 29 Apr 2017
  66. SSI (2017) Sustainability and the SSI. http://www.ssfindex.com/ssi/ssi-2016/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  67. Thanh Nien News (2016) Ho Chi Minh City now has 7.4 million motorbikes, and counting, 6 Jan 2016. http://www.thanhniennews.com/society/ho-chi-minh-city-now-has-74-million-motorbikes-and-counting-57787.html. Accessed 29 Apr 2017
  68. Tiezzi S (2016) It’s official: Formosa subsidiary caused mass fish deaths in Vietnam. The Diplomat, July 1. http://thediplomat.com/2016/07/its-official-formosa-subsidiary-caused-mass-fish-deaths-in-vietnam. Accessed 30 Apr 2017
  69. Transparency International (2017) Vietnam. https://www.transparency.org/country/VNM. Accessed 2 May 2017
  70. UNDP (2017) Country Profile: Vietnam. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Country-Profiles. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  71. United Nations (2015) World Population Prospects, The 2015 Revision. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  72. U.S. Department of State (2017) Lower Mekong Initiative. https://www.state.gov/p/eap/mekong/. Accessed 2 May 2017
  73. Vietnam Breaking News (2017) RMIT Responds to Earth Day, 26 Apr 2017. https://www.vietnambreakingnews.com/tag/earth-day/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  74. Vietnam News (2016) Gov’t reform needed to tackle corruption, 30 March 2016. http://vietnamnews.vn/politics-laws/294521/govt-reform-needed-to-tackle-corruption.html#3747F0OTrePOwsoT.97. Accessed 28 Apr 2017
  75. Viswanathan M, Jung K, Venugopal S, Minefee I, Jung IW (2014) Subsistence and sustainability: from micro-level behavioral insights to macro-level implications on consumption, conservation, and the environment. J Macromarket 34:8–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warren J (2016) Cultures of development: Vietnam, Brazil and the unsung vanguard of prosperity. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Water Environment Partnership in Asia (2015) State of water and environmental issues: Vietnam, Hayama, Kanagawa: Water Environment Partnership in Asia, http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/vietnam/overview.htm. Accessed 28 Oct 2017
  78. Wolf M (2004) Why globalization works. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  79. World Bank (2017) Vietnam: Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/vietnam/overview. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  80. World by Map (2017) http://world.bymap.org/. Accessed 28 Apr 2017
  81. World Health Organization (2015). Vietnam. http://www.who.int/countries/vnm/en/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Loyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.University of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations