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Environmental Management

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 466–484 | Cite as

Effects of Multi-Component Mixtures from Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) under Fully Realistic Condition

  • Pham Thai GiangEmail author
  • Viktoriia Burkina
  • Sidika Sakalli
  • Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
  • Tomas Randak
  • Roman Grabic
  • Katerina Grabicova
  • Ganna Fedorova
  • Olga Koba
  • Oksana Golovko
  • Jan Turek
  • Daniel Cerveny
  • Jitka Kolarova
  • Vladimir Zlabek
Article

Abstract

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.

Keywords

Biological pond Biological effects Endocrine disruption Integrate biomarker response 

Abbreviations

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

ALB

Albumins

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

NH3

Ammonia

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

Ca2+

Calcium

CAT

Catalase

CK

Creatine kinase

RBC

Red blood cell

FFPW

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Water

GLU

Glucose

GR

Glutathione reductase

GST

Glutathione S-tranferase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

PCV

Hematocrit value

Hb

Hemoglobin concentration

PHOS

Inorganic phosphate

LACT

Lactate

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

WBC

White blood cell 

Mg

Magnesium

MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCV

Mean erythrocyte volume

NSAIDs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

POCIS

Polar organic chemical integrative sampler

STPs

Sewage treatment plants

PPCPs

Pharmaceutical and personal care products

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TP

Total proteins

TRIG

Triglycerides

VTG

Vitellogenin

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic—projects “CENAKVA” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), “CENAKVA Center Development” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0380), “CENAKVA II” (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), by the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice (No. 012/2016/Z) and by the Czech Science Foundation (No. GACR 15-04258S). The authors would also like to thank the Vodnany town and CEVAK a.s. for supporting this work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

267_2017_964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (209 kb)
Supplementary Material

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pham Thai Giang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Viktoriia Burkina
    • 1
  • Sidika Sakalli
    • 1
  • Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
    • 2
  • Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
    • 3
  • Tomas Randak
    • 1
  • Roman Grabic
    • 1
  • Katerina Grabicova
    • 1
  • Ganna Fedorova
    • 1
  • Olga Koba
    • 1
  • Oksana Golovko
    • 1
  • Jan Turek
    • 1
  • Daniel Cerveny
    • 1
  • Jitka Kolarova
    • 1
  • Vladimir Zlabek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses University of South Bohemia in Ceske BudejoviceVodňanyCzech Republic
  2. 2.Vetsuisse Faculty, Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Department of Infectious Diseases and PathobiologyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceAarhus UniversityTjeleDenmark

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