Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 455–465 | Cite as

Composting of Sewage Sludge with a Simple Aeration Method and its Utilization as a Soil Fertilizer

  • Thanh-Binh NguyenEmail author
  • Kazuto Shima
Article

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of sewage sludge composting using a simple aeration method. Two consecutive composting trials (run A and run B) using Japanese sludge and woodchips (1:1, v/v) were conducted in cubic boxes (0.45 × 0.45 × 0.45 m3) made by plywood at Okayama University. Air was forced up through small holes perforated on two open-ended parallel PVC pipes (ø 16 mm, 0.25 m apart) laid at the base. The results show that compost temperatures were rapidly increased to the peak points of 47.4 °C (run A) and 74.8 °C (run B) within the first 2–3 days and varied depending on each composting run and vertical locations. The changes in physicochemical properties with particular attention to inorganic nitrogen (NH4–N, NO3–N) and free amino acid nitrogen (FAA-N) indicated that the biodegradation took place by different mineralization pathways during the composting process. The degradation of organic matter into amino acids followed by ammonification was predominant in run B, whereas the nitrification was greater in run A. A pot experiment using the two finished composts and their raw materials was carried out to study their effectiveness as fertilizer to Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis). The total plant biomass produced by the composts was similar to chemical fertilizer. The lowering proportions of FAA-N/T-N, NH4–N/NO3–N, and C/N ratios in the composts compared to those in raw materials was found to correlate with the increase in plant biomass.

Keywords

Amino acid Biodegradation Composting Nitrogen Sewage sludge 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work described in this paper was funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT). The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by the Okayama University in accordance with its policy on objectivity in research. The authors wish to express their appreciation to reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Alvarenga P, Mourinha C, Farto M et al. (2015) Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: benefits versus limiting factors. Waste Manag 40:44–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baca MT, Fernandez-Fígares I, De Nobili M (1994) Amino acid composition of composting cotton waste. Sci Total Environ 153:51–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90100-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brewer LJ, Sullivan DM (2003) Maturity and stability evaluation of composted yard trimmings. Compost Sci Util 11:96–112.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2003.10702117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brouillette, Trépanier L, Gallichand J, Beuchamp C (1996) Composting paper mill deinking sludge with forced aeration. Can Agric Eng 38:115–122.Google Scholar
  5. Burge WD, Cramer WN, Epstein E (1978) Destruction of pathogens in sewage sludge by composting. Am Soc Agric Biol Eng 21:0510–0514.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.35335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chantigny MH, Angers DA, Kaiser K et al. (2007) Extraction and characterization of dissolved organic matter. In: Carter MR, Gregorich EG (eds.) Soil sampling and methods of analysis, 2nd edition. Canadian Society of Soil Science, CRC Press of Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, p 628–629Google Scholar
  7. Chanyasak V, Kubota H (1981) Carbon/organic nitrogen ratio in water extract as measure of composting degradation. J Ferment Technol 59:215–219Google Scholar
  8. Cofie O, Nikiema J, Impraim R et al. (2016) Co-composting of solid waste and fecal sludge for nutrient and organic matter recovery. Resource recovery and reuse Series 3. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, p. 47Google Scholar
  9. Cofie O, Kone D, Rothenberger S et al. (2009) Co-composting of fecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics. Water Res 43:4665–4675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooperband LR, Stone AG, Fryda MR, Ravet JL (2003) Relating compost measures of stability and maturity to plant growth. Compost Sci Util 11:113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2003.10702118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diaz LF, De Bertoldi M, Bidlinmaier W, Stentiford E (2007) Compost science and technology. Waste managment series 8. Elsevier, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  12. Doane TA, Horwath WR (2003) Spectrophotometric determination of nitrate with a single reagent. Anal Lett 36:2713–2722.  https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-120024647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eklind Y, Salomonsson L, Wivstad M, Rämert B (2014) Use of herbage compost as horticultural substrate and source of plant nutrients. Biol Agric Hortic 16:269–290.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01448765.1998.10823200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. El Fels L, Zamama M, El Asli A, Hafidi M (2014) Assessment of biotransformation of organic matter during co-composting of sewage sludge-lignocelullosic waste by chemical, FTIR analyzes, and phytotoxicity tests. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 87:128–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Faithfull NT (2002) Methods in agricultural chemical analyis: a practical handbook. CABI Publishing, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fang M, Wong JWC, Ma KK, Wong MH (1999) Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations. Bioresour Technol 67:19–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00095-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garcia C, Hernandez T, Costa F (1991) Changes in carbon fractions during composting and maturation of organic wastes. Environ Manag 15:433–439.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02393889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gigliotti G, Proietti P, Said-Pullicino D et al. (2012) Co-composting of olive husks with high moisture contents: oOrganic matter dynamics and compost quality. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 67:8–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hara M, Hirose K, Ishikawa H (1999) Detection of free amino acids using paper chromatography for evaluating degree of compost maturity. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 70:306–314.Google Scholar
  20. Hue NV, Liu J (1995) Predicting compost stability. Compost Sci Util 3:8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.1995.10701777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iglesias Jiménez E, Perez Garcia V (1989) Evaluation of city refuse compost maturity: a review. Biol Wastes 27:115–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7483(89)90039-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones DL, Kielland K (2002) Soil amino acid turnover dominates the nitrogen flux in permafrost-dominated taiga forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 34:209–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00175-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karius R (2011) Developing an integrated concept for sewage sludge treatment and disposal from municipal wastewater treatment systems in (peri-) urban areas in Vietnam [Diploma thesis]. Technische Universitat DresdenGoogle Scholar
  24. Kubota H, Hirai I, Satoshi MF1983) Effects of compost maturity on growth of komatsuna (Brassica Rapa var. pervidis) in neubauer’s pot. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 29:251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1983.10434626 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuter GA, Hoitink HAJ, Rossman LA (1985) Effects of aeration and temperature on composting of municipal sludge in a full-scale vessel system. Water Pollut Control Fed 57:309–315Google Scholar
  26. Lähdesmäki P, Piispanen R (1989) Changes in concentrations of free amino acids during humification of spruce and aspen leaf litter. Soil Biol Biochem 21:975–978.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(89)90091-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Larney FJ, Olson AF (2006) Windrow temperatures and chemical properties during active and passive aeration composting of beef cattle feedlot manure. Can J Soil Sci 86:783–797.  https://doi.org/10.4141/S06-031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li Y, Li W, Liu B et al. (2013) Ammonia emissions and biodegradation of organic carbon during sewage sludge composting with different extra carbon sources. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:624–630.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang C, Das KC, McClendon RW (2003) The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend. Bioresour Technol 86:131–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00153-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu LA, Kumar M, Tsai JC, Lin JG (2008) High-rate composting of barley dregs with sewage sludge in a pilot scale bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 99:2210–2217.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Malińska K, Zabochnicka-Światek M (2013) Selection of bulking agents for composting of sewage sludge. Environ Prot Eng 39:91–103.  https://doi.org/10.5277/EPE130209 Google Scholar
  32. Malińska K, Zabochnicka-Światek M, Dach J (2014) Effects of biochar amendment on ammonia emission during composting of sewage sludge. Ecol Eng 71:474–478.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKinley VL, Vestal JR (1985) Physical and chemical correlates of microbial activity and biomass in composting municipal sewage sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:1395–1403Google Scholar
  34. MLIT (2011) Status for the use of sewage sludge in Japan. In: Japanese Ministry of land, infrastructure, Transport and tourism. http://www.mlit.go.jp/mizukokudo/sewerage/crd_sewerage_tk_000124.html
  35. Morisaki N, Phae ChaeGun, Nakasaki K et al. (1989) Nitrogen transformation during thermophilic composting. J Ferment Bioeng 67:57–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338X(89)90087-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Onofri A, Pannacci E (2014) Spreadsheet tools for biometry classes in crop science programs. Commun Biometry. Crop Sci 9:43–53.Google Scholar
  37. Padgett PE, Leonard RT (1996) Free amino acid levels and the regulation of nitrate uptake in maize cell suspension cultures. J Exp Bot 47:871–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paré T, Dinel H, Schnitzer M, Dumontet S (1998) Transformations of carbon and nitrogen during composting of animal manure and shredded paper. Biol Fertil Soils 26:173–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paredes C, Roig A, Bernal MP et al. (2000) Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen duing co-compostiing of olive mill wastwater with solid organic wastes. Biol Fertil Soils 32:222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pedra F, Polo A, Ribeiro A, Domingues H (2007) Effects of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on mineralization of soil organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 39:1375–1382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Plett S, Epstein E, Coker C (2000) Biosolids technology fact sheet: vessel composting of biosolids. Belt Filter Press. EPA 832-F-00-057Google Scholar
  42. Said-Pullicino D, Erriquens FG, Gigliotti G (2007) Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extractable organic matter during composting and their influence on compost stability and maturity. Bioresour Technol 98:1822–1831.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tan KH (1996) Soil sampling, preparation, and analysis. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY, Hodgkiss IJ (1998) Composting of spent pig litter at different seasonal temperatures in subtropical climate. Environ Pollut 98:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY (2000) Co-composting of spent pig litter and sludge with forced-aeration. Bioresour Technol 72:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)90092-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walter I, Martı´nez F, Cala V (2006) Heavy metal speciation and phytotoxic effects of three representative sewage sludges for agricultural uses. Environ Pollut 139:507–514.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang K, Li W, Li Y et al. (2013) The modeling of combined strategies to achieve thermophilic composting of sludge in cold region. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:608–616.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Warman PR, Termeer WC (2005) Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: yields and N, P and K content of crops and soils. Bioresour Technol 96:955–961.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Witter E, Lopez-Real JM (1987) The potential of sewage sludge and composting in a nitrogen recycling strategy for agriculture. Biol Agric Hortic 5:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01448765.1987.9755122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wong MH, Chu LM (1985) The responses of edible crops treated with extracts of refuse compost of different ages. Agric Wastes 14:63–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-4607(85)80017-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Ecology, Graduate School of Environmental and Life ScienceOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Soil Agro-Chemistry, Faculty of AgronomyNong Lam UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations