Outcome Measures in Gender-Confirming Chest Surgery: A Systematic Scoping Review



The aim of this scoping review was to provide an overview of outcome measures in gender-confirming chest surgery.


A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus and the Cochrane Library to find studies evaluating gender-confirming chest surgery in a non-cis gender population. The systematic scoping review followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. Data were charted for outcome measures including complications, reoperations, revision surgery, aesthetic outcome and patient-reported outcome measures.


Our search yielded 849 records, which were screened on title, abstract and full text. Of these, 47 were included in the review. Feminising gender-confirming chest surgery was evaluated in 11 studies, and masculinising gender-confirming chest surgery was evaluated in 39 studies. Clinician-reported outcome categories were used in 40 studies and included complications, reoperation, revision surgery and aesthetic outcome. Categories of patient-reported outcomes were used in 29 studies and included aesthetic outcome, functional outcome and mental health parameters. The summary of outcome domains and classifications showed that there are large variations in outcome evaluation between studies. Although several studies reported on similar outcome categories, there was a high level of heterogeneity of domains and classifications of outcomes.


Evaluation of outcomes in gender-confirming chest surgery showed large variations in reporting, and further streamlining of reporting is therefore required to be able to compare surgical outcomes between studies.

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Correspondence to Anders Tolstrup.

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Tolstrup, A., Zetner, D. & Rosenberg, J. Outcome Measures in Gender-Confirming Chest Surgery: A Systematic Scoping Review. Aesth Plast Surg 44, 219–228 (2020).

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  • Sex reassignment surgery
  • Gender confirmation surgery
  • Transgender persons
  • Clinician-reported outcome measures
  • Patient-reported outcome measures
  • Scoping review