Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 1145–1149 | Cite as

A Review of the Literature on the Management of Silicone Implant Incompatibility Syndrome

  • Sibon K. FuzzardEmail author
  • Rodrigo Teixeira
  • Richard Zinn
Review Breast Surgery



Silicone implant breast augmentation has been routinely performed since the 1960s. Emerging literature suggests the existence of a clinical syndrome, silicone implant incompatibility syndrome (SIIS) resulting from silicone implants. Autoimmune reactivity develops, with subsequent symptoms including myalgias, arthralgias, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. While the existence of a clinical entity is currently being established in the literature, there are currently no guidelines on management.


Literature review was conducted using Medline and PubMed databases with key terms searched for, prior to hand-searching and bibliographical review until February 2019. The relevant literature was reviewed to determine whether consensus exists on the most appropriate management strategy.


Forty-nine articles relevant to SIIS were identified with twenty-one of these specifically outlining treatment. Of these, only five provided data on larger cohorts, three provided conclusions from literature reviews, and the remainder were small case series or isolated case reports. Improvement in symptoms was obtained by medical management of their immune response, by explantation and by simply counselling on the condition itself.


A new clinical condition is being described that appears to suggest a link between silicone implant use and various symptoms in a cohort of patients. The subsequent treatment of SIIS is yet to be agreed upon. Further research is required to establish guidelines for diagnosis and ensure evidence-based treatment, and that patients and clinicians have a more refined understanding of the potential risks of silicone breast implant use.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


SIIS ASIA Breast Silicone Autoimmune 



The authors would like to thank Kathryn Rough, Northern Health Librarian, for her assistance in performing literature review.

Ethical Compliance Statement

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Ethical Standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryNorthern Health MelbourneEppingAustralia
  2. 2.The University of Melbourne Medical SchoolParkvilleAustralia

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