Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 1102–1110 | Cite as

Assessment of Female Genital Surgery Education in Plastic Surgery Training: Report of an Expert Opinion Survey

  • Bouraoui KottiEmail author
  • Lina Triana
  • Alexandra Condé-Green
  • Samir Janne Hasbun
  • Alvaro L. Cansancao
  • Richard L. Agag
Original Article Special Topics



Patient demand for aesthetic genital surgery has markedly increased. The International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported 95,010 labiaplasties and 50,086 vaginal rejuvenation procedures in 2015.


We performed an online anonymous survey to evaluate the teaching of female genital procedures in plastic surgery training programs worldwide.


A total of 1033 board certified plastic surgeons answered the survey. Most respondents were from the USA, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia. The majority of plastic surgeons performing these procedures were in private practice (77.62%) and (22.38%) in academic settings. Most plastic surgeons (75.63%) did not receive formal education in female genital rejuvenation procedures however 54.31% did receive education in reconstruction procedures. During their training, most were exposed to vaginal reconstruction (15.94%), labia minora reduction (11.9%), vulva reconstruction (11.53%), flaps for vaginal agenesis (11.39%) and monsplasty (7.98%). Additional training for female genital procedures was mostly at meetings and shadowing experts. Sixty-two percent reported that patients seldom requested those procedures, and 63.73% reported these procedures comprised less than 5% of their practice. The most commonly performed procedures were labia minora reduction, labia majora augmentation or reduction and monsplasty. The materials used were mostly fat grafting, hyaluronic acid injections and lasers.


Additional formal training during residency for aesthetic genital surgery would be beneficial. Additionally, courses at meetings would be useful for plastic surgeons who have had insufficient training. More studies need to be conducted on the different female genital rejuvenation procedures offered in order to evaluate patients’ long-term outcomes and satisfaction.

Level of Evidence V

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Female genital rejuvenation Female genital surgery Education Plastic surgery training Expert opinion survey 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, informed consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Office, When Beauty Meets ScienceTunisTunisia
  2. 2.Clinica Corpus y RostrumCaliColombia
  3. 3.Division of Plastic SurgeryRutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  4. 4.Division of Plastic SurgerySimon Bolivar UniversityBarranquillaColombia
  5. 5.Department of Plastic SurgeryUniversidade Iguaçu, Hospital da PlásticaRio de JaneiroBrazil

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