Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 196–201 | Cite as

Influence of the Subjective Body Image on the Outcome of Functional Rhinoplasty

  • Christoph SpiekermannEmail author
  • Achim Georg Beule
  • Claudia Rudack
  • Markus Stenner
  • Eleftherios Savvas
Original Article Rhinoplasty


Improvement of nasal breathing is considered to be the major aspect of functional rhinoplasty (fRPL). Nevertheless, simultaneous aesthetic modifications can be required to achieve sufficient functional enhancement. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of the subjective perception of the nasal appearance on the outcome of fRPL. Patients undergoing fRPL were asked to complete the German version of the Utrecht Questionnaire for Outcome Assessment in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty (D-OAR) preoperatively, 1, 3 and 12 months after surgery. The patients’ satisfaction with the procedure’s result was determined using a five-point Likert scale 1, 3 and 12 months after rhinoplasty. In total, 87 patients (42 males and 45 females) with a median age of 25 years undergoing fRPL were included in this study. Compared to males, females showed diminished VAS scores (4.03 ± 2.02 vs 2.71 ± 1.96, p = 0.006) and higher D-OAR scores during preoperative outpatient consultation (13.34 ± 5.00 vs 16.07 ± 5.62, p = 0.020). An increase in the VAS score and a decrease in the D-OAR score were observed independent of gender post-operatively. Significant correlations between the patients’ satisfaction and the D-OAR score at each time point of assessment were demonstrated, whereas no significant correlation between the post-operative patients’ satisfaction and the initial D-OAR score could be identified. These results demonstrate the importance of body image and the subjective perception of the nasal appearance in particular in patients undergoing fRPL which should be taken into consideration of surgeons preoperatively.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Questionnaire Quality of life Rhinoplasty Functional rhinoplasty Outcome Body image 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Institute of ImmunologyUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany

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