Advertisement

A biologging perspective to the drivers that shape gregariousness in dusky dolphins

  • Heidi C. PearsonEmail author
  • Peter W. Jones
  • Taelor P. Brandon
  • Karen A Stockin
  • Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska
Original Article

Abstract

Knowledge of proximate (causation and development) and ultimate (evolution and survival function) causes of gregariousness is necessary to advance our knowledge of animal societies. Delphinids are among the most social taxa; however, fine-scale understanding of their intra-specific relationships is hindered by the need for underwater observations on individuals. We developed a non-invasive animal-borne camera system with the goal of examining influences on gregariousness in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). We analyzed video and diving records from 11 individual dusky dolphins off Kaikoura, New Zealand. We examined the influence of biologger attachment on dolphin behavior and tested hypotheses regarding the effects of physiology, predation, and inter-individual variation on conspecific interactions. Dolphins did not exhibit increased rates of descent or ascent in the minutes immediately following biologger attachment, indicating a lack of behavioral response. Respiration rate was positively related to dive depth and duration, suggesting that diving is energetically expensive for this species. Gregariousness was negatively related to dive depth providing evidence that the physiological constraints of diving are likely to limit social behavior. Calves were not observed more frequently in infant (vs. echelon) position with increasing depth, highlighting the likelihood of other anti-predation strategies (e.g., dilution effect) in mother-calf pairs. We found that gregariousness differed between individuals within similar social groups, suggesting the importance of collecting data at the individual level. The evidence presented herein suggests that the further development of animal-borne camera systems will yield further insight into the mechanisms underlying delphinid social behavior.

Significance statement

Dolphins are highly social and thus excellent model species for examining the cause and function of gregariousness. However, their cryptic nature poses a challenge to collecting the fine-scale data at the individual level required to conduct rigorous hypothesis tests. We overcame this obstacle by deploying a non-invasive cutting-edge biologger on free-ranging dusky dolphins to collect information on diving behavior, physiology, gregariousness, and mother-calf strategies. Results indicate that diving is energetically expensive, even to relatively shallow depths, and these costs likely hinder gregariousness at depth. Individual differences in gregariousness were apparent and as expected in this fission-fusion society. Unexpectedly, mother-calf pairs appeared to utilize strategies other than spatial positioning to minimize predation risk. This study advanced knowledge of dolphin social life and helps to improve the degree of data resolution in cetaceans to a level on par with terrestrial studies.

Keywords

Dusky dolphin Gregariousness Predation Maternal strategies Diving behavior Biologging 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to: A. Garnier, E. Hill, A. Judkins, D. Lundquist, C. Pearson, M. Srinivasan, and J. Weir for field assistance; M. Morrissey/Department of Conservation (DOC) and B. and M. Würsig for use of their research vessels and other field support; S. Gan for assistance with video analysis; and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful critiques.

Funding information

This study was funded by a National Geographic Society/Waitt Fund Grant (#W365-14); a grant from the Encounter Foundation; the Faculty of Veterinary Science and School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney; and the University of Alaska Southeast. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Alaska NASA EPSCoR Program (NNX13AB28A).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was conducted under the University of Alaska Fairbanks IACUC 490961-8, Massey University Animal Ethics Committee approval MU13/90, and DOC permit 37696-MAR. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

ESM 1

(MOV 15644 kb)

References

  1. Acevedo-Guitérrez A (2018) Group behavior. In: Wursig B, Thewissen JGM, Kovacs KM (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar Soto N, Johnson MP, Madsen PT, Díaz F, Domínguez I, Brito A, Tyack P (2008) Cheetahs of the deep sea: deep foraging sprints in short-finned pilot whales off Tenerife (Canary Islands). J Anim Ecol 77:936–947PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–266PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altmann J, Samuels A (1992) Costs of maternal care: infant-carrying baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 29:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altmann SA, Altmann J (1970) Baboon ecology: African field research. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Aureli F, Schaffner CM, Boesch C et al (2008) Fission-fusion dynamics. Curr Anthropol 49:627–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baird RW, Ligon AD, Hooker SK, Gorgone AM (2001) Subsurface and nighttime behaviour of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawai’i. Can J Zool 79:988–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender CE, Herzing DL, Bjorklund DF (2009) Evidence of teaching in Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) by mother dolphins foraging in the presence of their calves. Anim Cogn 12:43–53PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Benoit-Bird KJ, Würsig B, McFadden CJ (2004) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) foraging in two different habitats: active acoustic detection of dolphins and their prey. Mar Mammal Sci 20:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calambokidis J, Schorr GS, Steiger GH, Francis J, Bakhtiari M, Marshall G, Oleson EM, Gendron D, Robertson K (2007) Insights into the underwater diving, feeding, and calling behavior of blue whales from a suction-cup-attached video imaging tag (CRITTERCAM). Mar Technol Soc J 41:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carey FG, Scharold JV (1990) Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in depth and course. Mar Biol 106:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carey FG, Teal JM, Kanwisher JW (1981) The visceral temperatures of mackerel sharks (Lamnidae). Physiol Zool 54:334–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cipriano F, Webber M (2010) Dusky dolphin life history and demography. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 21–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cipriano FW (1992) Behavior and occurrence patterns, feeding ecology, and life history of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Dissertation, University of ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  15. Cockcroft VG, Ross GJB (1990) Observations on the early development of a captive bottlenose dolphin calf. In: Leatherwood S, Reeves RR (eds) The bottlenose dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 461–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connor RC, Wells RS, Mann J, Read AJ (2000) The bottlenose dolphin. In: Mann J, Connor RC, Tyack PL, Whitehead H (eds) Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 91–126Google Scholar
  17. Dahood AD, Benoit-Bird KJ (2010) Dusky dolphins foraging at night. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Degrati M, Coscarella MA, Crespo EA, Dans SL (2018) Dusky dolphin group dynamics and association patterns in Península Valdés, Argentina. Mar Mammal Sci 35:416–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deutsch S, Pearson HC, Würsig B (2014) Development of leaps in dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) calves. Behaviour 151:1555–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deutsch SM (2008) Behavioral development of dusky dolphins. MSc thesis, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. Dietz R, Shapiro AD, Bakhtiari M, Orr J, Tyack PL, Richard P, Grønborg Eskesen I, Marshall G (2007) Upside-down swimming behaviour of free-ranging narwhals. BMC Ecol 7:14PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Estes RD (1991) The behaviour guide to African mammals. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldbogen JA, Cade DE, Boersma AT, Calambokidis J, Kahane-Rapport SR, Segre PS, Stimpert AK, Friedlaender AS (2017) Using digital tags with integrated video and inertial sensors to study moving morphology and associated function in large aquatic vertebrates. Anat Rec 300:1935–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe. Patterns of behavior. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Gowans S, Würsig B, Karczmarski L (2008) The social structure and strategies of delphinids: predictions based on an ecological framework. Adv Mar Biol 53:195–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gubbins C, McCowan B, Lynn SK, Hooper S, Reiss D (1999) Mother-infant spatial relations in captive bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Mar Mammal Sci 15:751–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gygax L (2002) Evolution of group size in the superfamily Delphinoidea (Delphinidae, Phocoenidae and Monodontidae): a quantitative comparative analysis. Mammal Rev 32:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanson MB, Baird RW (1998) Dall’s porpoise reactions to tagging attempts using a remotely-deployed suction-cup tag. Mar Technol Soc J 32:18–23Google Scholar
  29. Herzing DL (2015) Synchronous and rhythmic vocalizations and correlated underwater behavior of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Bahamas. Anim Behav Cogn 2:14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hinde RA (1976) Interactions, relationships and social structure. Man 11:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hulbert LB, Sigler MF, Lunsford CR (2006) Depth and movement behavior of the Pacific sleeper shark in the north-east Pacific Ocean. J Fish Biol 69:406–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson M, Aguilar de Soto N, Madsen PT (2009) Studying the behaviour and sensory ecology of marine mammals using acoustic recording tags: a review. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 395:55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaplan JD, Connor RC (2007) A preliminary examination of sex differences in tactile interactions among juvenile Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis). Mar Mammal Sci 23:943–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krebs JR, Davies NB (1993) An introduction to behavioural ecology, 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, BostonGoogle Scholar
  35. Lehner PN (1996) Handbook of ethological methods, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Lewis KB, Barnes PM (1999) Kaikoura Canyon, New Zealand: active conduit from near-shore sediment zones to trench-axis channel. Mar Geol 162:39–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lindburg DG (1971) The rhesus monkey in north India: an ecological and behavioral study. In: Rosenblum LA (ed) Primate behavior: developments in field and laboratory research, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 2–106Google Scholar
  38. Machovsky-Capuska GE, Priddel D, Leong PH, Jones P, Carlile N, Shannon L, Portelli D, McEwan A, Chaves AV, Raubenheimer D (2016) Coupling bio-logging with nutritional geometry to reveal novel insights into the foraging behaviour of a plunge-diving marine predator. New Zeal J Mar Fresh 50:418–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mann J (1999) Behavioral sampling methods for cetaceans: a review and critique. Mar Mamm Sci 15:102–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mann J (2000) Unraveling the dynamics of social life. In: Mann J, Connor RC, Tyack PL, Whitehead H (eds) Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 45-64Google Scholar
  41. Mann J, Karniski C (2017) Diving beneath the surface: long-term studies of dolphins and whales. J Mammal 98:621–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mann J, Smuts B (1999) Behavioral development in wild bottlenose dolphin newborns (Tursiops sp.). Behaviour 136:529–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mann J, Smuts BB (1998) Natal attraction: allomaternal care and mother-infant separations in wild bottlenose dolphins. Anim Behav 55:1097–1113PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Mann J, Watson-Capps JJ (2005) Surviving at sea: ecological and behavioural predictors of calf mortality in Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops sp. Anim Behav 69:899–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Markowitz TM (2004) Social organization of the New Zealand dusky dolphin. Dissertation, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  46. Marshall G (1998) Crittercam: an animal-borne imaging and data logging system. Mar Tech Soc 32:11–17Google Scholar
  47. Melillo KE, Dudzinski KM, Cornick LA (2009) Interactions between Atlantic spotted (Stenella frontalis) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins off Bimini, The Bahamas, 2003-2007. Aquat Mamm 35:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller PJO, Roos MH (2018) Breathing. In: Wursig B, Thewissen JGM, Kovacs KM (eds) Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 140–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miketa ML, Patterson EM, Krzyszczyk E, Foroughirad V, Mann J (2018) Calf age and sex affect maternal diving behaviour in Shark Bay bottlenose dolphins. Anim Behav 137:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moll RJ, Millspaugh JJ, Beringer J, Sartwell J, He Z (2007) A new ‘view’ of ecology and conservation through animal-borne video systems. Trends Ecol Evol 22:660–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moss CH (1988) Elephant memories. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  52. Noren SR (2008) Infant carrying behaviour in dolphins: costly parental care in an aquatic environment. Funct Ecol 22:284–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Noren SR, Biedenbach G, Edwards EF (2006) The ontogeny of swim performance and mechanics in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). J Exp Biol 209:4724–4731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Noren SR, Edwards EF (2011) Infant position in mother-calf dolphin pairs: formation locomotion with hydrodynamic benefits. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 424:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. O’Malley Miller PJ, Shapiro AD, Deecke VB (2010) The diving behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca): variations with ecological not physiological factors. Can J Zool 88:1103–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Orbach DN, Packard JM, Würsig B (2014) Mating group size in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): costs and benefits of scramble competition. Ethology 120:804–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Orbach DN, Pearson HC, Beier-Engelhaupt A, Deutsch S, Srinivasan M, Weir JS, Yin S, Würsig B (2018) Long-term assessment of spatio-temporal association patterns of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Aquat Mamm 44:608–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pearson HC (2009) Influences on dusky dolphin fission-fusion dynamics in Admiralty Bay, New Zealand. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1437–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pearson HC, Jones P, Srinivasan M, Lundquist D, Pearson CJ, Machovsky-Capuska GE (2017a) Testing and deployment of C-VISS (Cetacean-borne Video camera and Integrated Sensor System) on wild dolphins. Mar Biol 164:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pearson HC, Markowitz TM, Weir JS, Würsig B (2017b) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) social structure characterized by social fluidity and preferred companions. Mar Mammal Sci 33:251–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pearson HC, Shelton DE (2010) A large-brained social animal. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 333–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Quick NJ, Janik VM (2012) Bottlenose dolphins exchange signature whistles when meeting at sea. Proc R Soc Lond B 279:2539–2545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ridgway SH, Dibble DS, Kennemer JA (2018) Timing and context of dolphin clicks during and after mine simulator detection and marking in the open ocean. Biol Open 7:bio031625PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Roncon G, Bestley S, McMahon CR, Wienecke B, Hindell MA (2018) View from below: inferring behavior and physiology of Southern Ocean marine predators from dive telemetry. Front Mar Sci 5:464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ross C (2001) Park or ride? Evolution of infant carrying in primates. Int J Primatol 22:749–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schaffer-Delaney A (2004) Female reproductive strategies and mother-calf relationships of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. MSc thesis, Massey UniversityGoogle Scholar
  67. Schaller GB (1972) The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  68. Schneider K, Baird RW, Dawson S, Visser I, Childerhouse S (1998) Reactions of bottlenose dolphins to tagging attempts using a remotely-deployed suction-cup tag. Mar Mammal Sci 14:316–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Scott MD, Chivers SJ (2009) Movements and diving behavior of pelagic spotted dolphins. Mar Mammal Sci 25:137–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Serge PS, Cade DE, Fish FE, Potvin J, Allen AN, Calambokidis J, Friedlaender AS, Goldbogen JA (2016) Hydrodynamic properties of fin whale flippers predict maximum rolling performance. J Exp Biol 291:3315–3320Google Scholar
  71. Similä T (1997) Sonar observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on herring schools. Aquat Mamm 23:119–126Google Scholar
  72. Srinivasan M, Markowitz TM (2010) Predator threats and dusky dolphin survival strategies. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sterck EHM, Watts DP, van Schaik CP (1997) The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:291–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Taylor J (2006) Foraging habits and associated preferential foraging specializations of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) mom-calf pairs. Aquat Mammal 32:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tinbergen N (1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Anim Biol 55:2397–2321Google Scholar
  76. Weir J, Deutsch S, Pearson HC (2010) Dusky dolphin calf rearing. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weir JS (2007) Dusky dolphin nursery groups off Kaikoura, New Zealand. MSc thesis, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  78. Weir JS, Duprey NMT, Würsig B (2008) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) subgroup distribution: are shallow waters a refuge for nursery groups? Can J Zool 86:1225–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wells RS (2003) Dolphin social complexity: lessons from long-term study and life history. In: de Waal FBM, Tyack PL (eds) Animal social complexity: intelligence, culture, and individualized societies. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 32–56Google Scholar
  80. Wells RS, Manire CA, Byrd L, Smith DR, Gannon JG, Fauquier D, Mullin KD (2009) Movements and dive patterns of a rehabilitated Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus, in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Mar Mammal Sci 25:420–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wells RS, McHugh KA, Douglas DC, Shippee S, Berens McCabe E, Baros NB, Phillips GT (2013) Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins: feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Front Endocrinol 4:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Weng KC, Boustany AM, Pyle P, Anderson SD, Brown A, Block BA (2007a) Migration and habitat of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Mar Biol 152:877–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weng KC, O’Sullivan JB, Lowe CG, Winkler CE, Dewar H, Block BA (2007b) Movements, behavior and habitat preferences of juvenile white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in the eastern Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Whitehead H (2008) Analyzing animal societies. Chicago University Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams GC (1966) Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  86. Williams TM, Davis RW, Fuiman LA, Francis J, Le Boeuf BJ, Horning M, Calambokidis J, Croll DA (2000) Sink or swim: strategies for cost-efficient diving by marine mammals. Science 288:133–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Williams TM, Friedl WA, Fong ML, Yamada RM, Sedivy P, Haun JE (1992) Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins. Nature 355:821–823PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Würsig B, Cipriano F, Slooten E, Constantine R, Barr K, Yin S (1997) Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off New Zealand: status of present knowledge. Rep Int Whal Commn 47:715–722Google Scholar
  89. Würsig B, Duprey N, Weir J (2007) Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in New Zealand waters: present knowledge and research goals. DOC Res Dev Ser 270:1–28Google Scholar
  90. Würsig B, Jefferson TA (1990) Methods of photo-identification for small cetaceans. Rep Int Whaling Commn Special Issue 12:17–78Google Scholar
  91. Würsig B, Pearson HC (2014) Dusky dolphins: flexibility in foraging and social strategies. In: Yamagiwa J, Karczmarski L (eds) Primates and cetaceans: field research and conservation of complex mammalian societies. Springer, New York, pp 25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Würsig B, Würsig M (1980) Behavior and ecology of the dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, in the South Atlantic. Fish Bull 77:871–890Google Scholar
  93. Würsig B, Würsig M (2010) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  94. Yoda K, Murakoshi M, Tsutsui K, Kohno H (2011) Social interactions of juvenile brown boobies at sea as observed with animal-borne video cameras. PLoS ONE 6:e19602PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heidi C. Pearson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter W. Jones
    • 2
  • Taelor P. Brandon
    • 1
  • Karen A Stockin
    • 3
  • Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Alaska SoutheastJuneauUSA
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Information EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Coastal-Marine Research Group, School of Natural and Computational SciencesMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.Charles Perkins CentreThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations