Collective personalities: present knowledge and new frontiers

  • Colin M. WrightEmail author
  • James L. L. Lichtenstein
  • Grant N. Doering
  • Justin Pretorius
  • Joël Meunier
  • Jonathan N. Pruitt


Collective personalities refer to temporally consistent behavioral differences between distinct social groups. This phenomenon is a ubiquitous and key feature of social groups in nature, as virtually every study conducted to date has documented repeatable between-group differences in collective behavior, and has revealed ongoing selection on these traits in both the laboratory and field environments. Five years ago, foundational reviews by Bengston and Jandt pioneered this topic and delimited the present knowledge on collective personality. Here, we update these reviews by summarizing the recent works conducted in the field’s most prominent model systems: social spiders and eusocial insects. After presenting how these recent works helped scientists to better understand the determinants of collective personality, we used a trait-by-trait format to compare and contrast the results and thematic trends obtained in these taxa on 10 major aspects of collective personality: division of labor, foraging, exploration, boldness, defensive behavior, aggressiveness, decision-making, cognition, learning, and nest construction. We then discuss why similarities and dissimilarities in these results open the door to applying numerous theories developed in evolutionary behavioral ecology for individual traits (e.g., life history theory, game theory, optimal foraging theory) at the colony level, and close by providing examples of unexamined questions in this field that are ripe for new inquiries. We conclude that collective personality, as a framework, has the potential to improve our general understanding of how selection acts on intraspecific variation in collective phenotypes that are of key importance across arthropod societies and beyond.


Personality Behavior Sociality Arachnids Insects Collective behavior Eusocial 



  1. Agnarsson I (2006) A revision of the New World eximius lineage of Anelosimus (Araneae, Theridiidae) and a phylogenetic analysis using worldwide exemplars. Zool J Linnean Soc 146:453–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnarsson I, Aviles L, Coddington JA, Maddison WP (2006) Sociality in theridiid spiders: repeated origins of an evolutionary dead end. Evolution 60:2342–2351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alaux C, Sinha S, Hasadsri L, Hunt GJ, Guzman-Novoa E, DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Uribe-Rubio JL, Southey BR, Rodriguez-Zas S, Robinson GE (2009) Honey bee aggression supports a link between gene regulation and behavioral evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15400–15405PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altmann SA (1998) Foraging for survival: yearling baboons in Africa. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Ament S, Corona M, Pollock H, Robinson G (2008) Insulin signaling is involved in the regulation of worker division of labor in honey bee colonies. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp 4226-4231Google Scholar
  6. Ament SA, Wang Y, Robinson GE (2010) Nutritional regulation of division of labor in honey bees: toward a systems biology perspective. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Systems Biology and Medicine 2:566–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen SB, Ferrari M, Evans HC, Elliot SL, Boomsma JJ, Hughes DP (2012) Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies. PLoS One 7:e36352PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aplin LM, Farine DR, Mann RP, Sheldon BC (2014) Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds. Proc R Soc B 281(1789):20141016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avilés L, Guevara J (2017) Sociality in spiders. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barth RH, Lester LJ, Sroka P, Kessler T, Hearn R (1975) Juvenile hormone promotes dominance behavior and ovarian development in social wasps (Polistes annularis). Experientia 31:691–692PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bebus SE, Small TW, Jones BC, Elderbrock EK, Schoech SJ (2016) Associative learning is inversely related to reversal learning and varies with nestling corticosterone exposure. Anim Behav 111:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beckers R, Deneubourg JL, Goss S (1993) Modulation of trail laying in the ant lasius-niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its role in the collective selection of a food source. J Insect Behav 6:751–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beekman M, Sumpter DJT, Ratnieks FLW (2001) Phase transition between disordered and ordered foraging in Pharaoh’s ants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9703–9706PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beleyur T, Bellur DU, Somanathan H (2015) Long-term behavioural consistency in prey capture but not in web maintenance in a social spider. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:1019–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bengston SE, Dornhaus A (2014) Be meek or be bold? A colony-level behavioural syndrome in ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 281:20140518PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bengston SE, Jandt JM (2014) The development of collective personality: the ontogenetic drivers of behavioral variation across groups. Front Ecol Evol 2Google Scholar
  17. Bengston SE, Pruitt JN, Riechert SE (2014) Differences in environmental enrichment generate contrasting behavioural syndromes in a basal spider lineage. Anim Behav 93:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bengston SE, Shin M, Dornhaus A (2017) Life-history strategy and behavioral type: risk‐tolerance reflects growth rate and energy allocation in ant colonies. Oikos 126(4):556–564Google Scholar
  19. Ben-Shahar Y, Robichon A, Sokolowski MB, Robinson GE (2002) Influence of gene action across different time scales on behavior. Science 296:741–744PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Beshers SN, Huang ZY, Oono Y, Robinson GE (2001) Social inhibition and the regulation of temporal polyethism in honey bees. J Theor Biol 213:461–479PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N (2011a) Biology of termites: a modern synthesis. Biology of termites: a modern synthesis 1-576Google Scholar
  22. Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N (2011b) Biology of termites: a modern synthesis. Biology of Termites: a Modern Synthesis 1:–576Google Scholar
  23. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2008) Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity? Trends Ecol Evol 23:361–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bitterman ME, Menzel R, Fietz A, Schafer S (1983) Classical-conditioning of proboscis extension in honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Comp Psychol 97:107–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blanchard GB, Orledge GM, Reynolds SE, Franks NR (2000) Division of labour and seasonality in the ant Leptothorax albipennis: worker corpulence and its influence on behaviour. Anim Behav 59:723–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blight O, Diaz-Mariblanca GA, Cerda X, Boulay R (2016) A proactive-reactive syndrome affects group success in an ant species. Behav Ecol 27(1):118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Blight O, Josens R, Bertelsmeier C, Abril S, Boulay R, Cerda X (2017) Differences in behavioural traits among native and introduced colonies of an invasive ant. Biol Invasions 19:1389–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bockoven AA, Wilder SM, Eubanks MD (2015) Intraspecific variation among social insect colonies: persistent regional and colony-level differences in fire ant foraging behavior. PLoS One 10:e0133868PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bologna MA, Bombi P, Pitzalis M, Turillazzi S (2007) A previously unreported association between a social wasp and a social passerine bird. Trop Zool 20:211–214Google Scholar
  30. Bonabeau E, Theraulaz G, Deneubourg JL, Aron S, Camazine S (1997) Self-organization in social insects. Trends Ecol Evol 12:188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bourke AFG (1999) Colony size, social complexity and reproductive conflict in social insects. J Evol Biol 12:245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Breed MD, Rogers KB (1991) The behavioral-genetics of colony defense in honeybees - genetic variability for guarding behavior. Behav Genet 21:295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Breed MD, Guzman-Novoa E, Hunt GJ (2004) Defensive behavior of honey bees: organization, genetics, and comparisons with other bees. Annu Rev Entomol 49:271–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brown C, Irving E (2013) Individual personality traits influence group exploration in a feral guppy population. Behav Ecol 25(1):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Buczkowski G, Silverman J (2006) Geographical variation in Argentine ant aggression behaviour mediated by environmentally derived nestmate recognition cues. Anim Behav 71(2):327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Camazine S (1991) Self-organizing pattern-formation on the combs of honey-bee colonies. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 28:61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carere C, Gherardi F (2013) Animal personalities matter for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 28:5–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Carere C, Locurto C (2011) Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition. Current Zoology 57:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cerda X, Arnan X, Retana J (2013) Is competition a significant hallmark of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ecology? Myrmecological News 18:131–147Google Scholar
  40. Chandra SBC, Hosler JS, Smith BH (2000) Heritable variation for latent inhibition and its correlation with reversal learning in honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Comp Psychol 114:86–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chapman BB, Thain H, Coughlin J, Hughes WOH (2011) Behavioural syndromes at multiple scales in Myrmica ants. Anim Behav 82:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chapple DG, Simmonds SM, Wong BBM (2012) Can behavioral and personality traits influence the success of unintentional species introductions? Trends Ecol Evol 27:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cole BJ (1983) Multiple mating and the evolution of social-behavior in the Hymenoptera. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 12:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cole BJ, Edwards R, Holbrook CT, Holm L, Heyward J, Wiernasz DC (2008) Does foraging activity affect foraging success in the western harvester ant (Hymenoptera : formicidae)? Ann Entomol Soc Am 101:272–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cole BJ, Smith AA, Huber ZJ, Wiernasz DC (2010) The structure of foraging activity in colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Behav Ecol 21:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Collins AM, Rinderer TE, Harbo JR, Bolten AB (1982) Colony defense by Africanized and European honey bees. Science 218:72–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cronin AL (2015) Individual and group personalities characterise consensus decision-making in an ant. Ethology 121(7):703–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Crosland MWJ (1990) Variation in ant aggression and kin discrimination ability within and between colonies. J Insect Behav 3(3):359–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Davidson DW (1998) Resource discovery versus resource domination in ants: a functional mechanism for breaking the trade-off. Ecological Entomology 23:484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DeCasien AR, Williams SA, Higham JP (2017) Primate brain size is predicted by diet but not sociality. Nat Ecol Evol 1:0112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Detrain C, Deneubourg JL (2008) Collective decision-making and foraging patterns in ants and honeybees. Adv Insect Physiol 35(35):123–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dingemanse NJ, Kazem AJN, Reale D, Wright J (2010) Behavioural reaction norms: animal personality meets individual plasticity. Trends Ecol Evol 25:81–89PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. DiRienzo N, Dornhaus A (2017) Temnothorax rugatulus ant colonies consistently vary in nest structure across time and context. PLoS One 12Google Scholar
  54. Dornhaus A (2008) Specialization does not predict individual efficiency in an ant. PLoS Biol 6:2368–2375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dornhaus A, Holley JA, Pook VG, Worswick G, Franks NR (2008) Why do not all workers work? Colony size and workload during emigrations in the ant Temnothorax albipennis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dornhaus A, Powell S, Bengston S (2012) Group size and its effects on collective organization. Annu Rev Entomol 57(57):123–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Downs SG, Ratnieks FLW (2000) Adaptive shifts in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) guarding behavior support predictions of the acceptance threshold model. Behav Ecol 11:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dumke M, Herberstein ME, Schneider JM (2016) Producers and scroungers: feeding-type composition changes with group size in a socially foraging spider. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 283Google Scholar
  59. Dunbar RI (1992) Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. J Hum Evol 22:469–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dunbar RIM, Shultz S (2007) Evolution in the social brain. Science 317:1344–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dussutour A, Nicolis SC, Despland E, Simpson SJ (2008) Individual differences influence collective behaviour in social caterpillars. Anim Behav 76(1):5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ebert D (1998) Behavioral asymmetry in relation to body weight and hunger in the tropical social spider Anelosimus eximius (Araneae, Theridiidae). J Arachnol 26:70–80Google Scholar
  63. Eisner T, Kriston I, Aneshansley DJ (1976) Defense-mechanisms of arthropods .47. Defensive behavior of a termite (Nasutitermes exitiosus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 1:83–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Evans LJ, Raine NE (2014) Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) colonies. PLoS One 9Google Scholar
  65. Fahrbach SE, Robinson GE (1996) Juvenile hormone, behavioral maturation, and brain structure in the honey bee. Dev Neurosci 18:102–114PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Farris SM (2016) Insect societies and the social brain. Curr Opin Insect Sci 15:1–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Finlay BL, Darlington RB (1995) Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains. Science 268:1578–1584PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Franks N, Tofts C (1994) Foraging for work: how tasks allocate workers. In: Animal Behaviour, pp 470-472Google Scholar
  69. Frost EH, Shutler D, Hillier NK (2013) Effects of fluvalinate on honey bee learning, memory, responsiveness to sucrose, and survival. J Exp Biol 216:2931–2938PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Gautrais J, Theraulaz G, Deneubourg JL, Anderson C (2002) Emergent polyethism as a consequence of increased colony size in insect societies. J Theor Biol 215:363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gill RJ, Ramos-Rodriguez O, Raine NE (2012) Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491:105–U119PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gordon DM (1986) The dynamics of the daily round of the harvester ant colony (Pogonomyrmex barbatus). Anim Behav 34:1402–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gordon DM (1989) Dynamics of task switching in harvester ants. Anim Behav 38:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gordon DM (1996) The organization of work in social insect colonies. Nature 380:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gordon DM (2013) The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies. Nature 498:91-+PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gordon DM, Guetz A, Greene MJ, Holmes S (2011) Colony variation in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ants. Behav Ecol 22:429–435PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gordon DM, Dektar KN, Pinter-Wollman N (2013) Harvester ant colony variation in foraging activity and response to humidity. PLoS One 8Google Scholar
  78. Griffin AS, Guillette LM, Healy SD (2015) Cognition and personality: an analysis of an emerging field. Trends Ecol Evol 30:207–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grinsted L, Bacon JP (2014) Animal behaviour: task differentiation by personality in spider groups. Curr Biol 24:R749–R751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Grinsted L, Pruitt JN, Settepani V, Bilde T (2013) Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 280Google Scholar
  81. Guzman-Novoa E, Hunt GJ, Uribe-Rubio JL, Prieto-Merlos D (2004) Genotypic effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera) defensive behavior at the individual and colony levels: the relationship of guarding, pursuing and stinging. Apidologie 35:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Henschel JR (1998) Predation on social and solitary individuals of the spider Stegodyphus dumicola (Araneae, Eresidae). J Arachnol 26:61–69Google Scholar
  83. Herberstein ME, Hebets E, Penney D (2013) Why are spiders good models for research? In: Penney D (ed) Spider research in the 21st century: trends & perspectives, pp 230-251Google Scholar
  84. Holbrook CT, Barden PM, Fewell JH (2011) Division of labor increases with colony size in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Behav Ecol 22:960–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Holbrook CT, Wright CM, Pruitt JN (2014) Individual differences in personality and behavioural plasticity facilitate division of labour in social spider colonies. Anim Behav 97:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Holldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ants. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (2009) The superorganism: the beauty, elegance, and strangeness of insect societies. WW Norton & Company, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  88. Huang ZY, Robinson GE (1992) Honeybee colony integration - worker worker interactions mediate hormonally regulated plasticity in division-of-labor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:11726–11729PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Huang ZY, Robinson GE (1996) Regulation of honey bee division of labor by colony age demography. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 39:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hui A, Pinter-Wollman N (2014) Individual variation in exploratory behaviour improves speed and accuracy of collective nest selection by Argentine ants. Anim Behav 93:261–266PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hunt GJ (2007) Flight and fight: a comparative view of the neurophysiology and genetics of honey bee defensive behavior. J Insect Physiol 53:399–410PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ilieş I, Muscedere ML, Traniello JF (2015) Neuroanatomical and morphological trait clusters in the ant genus Pheidole: evidence for modularity and integration in brain structure. Brain Behav Evol 85:63–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Ingram KK, Oefner P, Gordon DM (2005) Task-specific expression of the foraging gene in harvester ants. Mol Ecol 14:813–818PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Ings TC, Raine NE, Chittka L (2009) A population comparison of the strength and persistence of innate colour preference and learning speed in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1207–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jackson RR, Cross FR (2011) Spider cognition. Advances in insect physiology, Vol 41: Spider physiology and behaviour - Behaviour 41:115-174Google Scholar
  96. Jakob E, Skow CD, Long SM (2011) Plasticity, learning and cognition. In: Herberstein ME (ed) Spider behavior: flexibility and versatility. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  97. Jandt JM, Dornhaus A (2009) Spatial organization and division of labour in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens. Anim Behav 77:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jandt JM, Gordon DM (2016) The behavioral ecology of variation in social insects. Curr Opin Insect Sci 15:40–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jandt JM, Huang E, Dornhaus A (2009) Weak specialization of workers inside a bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) nest. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1829–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jandt JM, Bengston S, Pinter-Wollman N, Pruitt JN, Raine NE, Dornhaus A, Sih A (2013) Behavioural syndromes and social insects: personality at multiple levels. Biol RevGoogle Scholar
  101. Jeanson R, Fewell JH (2008) Influence of the social context on division of labor in ant foundress associations. Behav Ecol 19:567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jolles JW, Boogert NJ, Sridhar VH, Couzin ID, Manica A (2017) Consistent individual differences drive collective behavior and group functioning of schooling fish. Current Biology 27(18):2862–2868Google Scholar
  103. Jolles JW, Laskowski KL, Boogert NJ, Manica A (2018) Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts. Proc R Soc B 285(1872):20172629Google Scholar
  104. Jongepier E, Kleeberg I, Job S, Foitzik S (2014) Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 281(1791):20140225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Judd TM (1998) Defensive behavior of colonies of the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, against vertebrate predators over the colony cycle. Insect Soc 45:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kamhi JF, Gronenberg W, Robson SK, Traniello JF (2016) Social complexity influences brain investment and neural operation costs in ants. Proc R Soc B 283:1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Karsai I, Penzes Z (1993) Comb building in social wasps - self-organization and stigmergic script. J Theor Biol 161:505–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2014) Personality composition is more important than group size in determining collective foraging behaviour in the wild. In Proceedings of the Royal Society BGoogle Scholar
  109. Keiser CN, Jones DK, Modlmeier AP, Pruitt JN (2014) Exploring the effects of individual traits and within-colony variation on task differentiation and collective behavior in a desert social spider. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:839–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Keiser CN, Wright CM, Pruitt JN (2015a) Warring arthropod societies: colony apparency and group size jointly dictate the survivorship of social spiders in a predator-dense habitat.Google Scholar
  111. Keiser CN, Wright CM, Singh N, DeShane JA, Modlmeier AP, Pruitt JN (2015b) Cross-fostering by foreign conspecific queens and slave-making workers influences individual- and colony-level personality. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Keiser CN, Pinter-Wollman N, Augustine DA, Ziemba MJ, Hao LR, Lawrence JG, Pruitt JN (2016a) Individual differences in boldness influence patterns of social interactions and the transmission of cuticular bacteria among group-mates. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 283Google Scholar
  113. Keiser CN, Wright CM, Pruitt JN (2016b) Increased bacterial load can reduce or negate the effects of keystone individuals on group collective behaviour. Anim Behav 114:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Keiser CN, Pinter-Wollman N, Ziemba MJ, Kothamasu KS, Pruitt JN (2017) The index case is not enough: variation among individuals, groups, and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics. J Anim EcolGoogle Scholar
  115. Keiser CN, Vojvodic S, Butler IO, Sartain E, Rudolf VHW, Saltz JB (2018) Queen presence mediates the relationship between collective behaviour and disease susceptibility in ant colonies. J Anim Ecol 87:379–387PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Keller L, Ross KG (1998) Selfish genes: a green beard in the red fire ant. Nature 394:573–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kim K, Krafft B, Choe J (2005) Cooperative prey capture by young subsocial spiders: II. Behavioral mechanism. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 59:101-107Google Scholar
  118. Kleeberg I, Pamminger T, Jongepier E, Papenhagen M, Foitzik S (2014) Forewarned is forearmed: aggression and information use determine fitness costs of slave raids. Behav Ecol 25:1058–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kralj J, Brockmann A, Fuchs S, Tautz J (2007) The parasitic mite Varroa destructor affects non-associative learning in honey bee foragers, Apis mellifera L. J Comp Physiol a-Neuroethol Sensory Neural Behav Physiol 193:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Krause J (1993) The relationship between foraging and shoal position in a mixed shoal of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus) - a field-study. Oecologia 93:356–359PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Krause J, Bumann D, Todt D (1992) Relationship between the position preference and nutritional state of individuals in schools of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 30:177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kronauer DJC, Schoning C, Pedersen JS, Boomsma JJ, Gadau J (2004) Extreme queen-mating frequency and colony fission in African army ants. Mol Ecol 13:2381–2388PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Laskowski KL, Pruitt JN (2014) Evidence of social niche construction: persistent and repeated social interactions generate stronger personalities in a social spider. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 281Google Scholar
  124. Laskowski KL, Montiglio PO, Pruitt JN (2016) Individual and group performance suffers from social niche disruption. Am Nat 187:776–785PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Lefevre T, Adamo SA, Biron DG, Misse D, Hughes D, Thomas F (2009) Invasion of the body snatchers: the diversity and evolution of manipulative strategies in host-parasite interactions. Advances in parasitology, Vol 68: Natural history of host-parasite interactions 68:45-+Google Scholar
  126. Lichtenstein JL, Pruitt JN, Modlmeier AP (2015) Intraspecific variation in collective behaviors drives interspecific contests in acorn ants. 1-7Google Scholar
  127. Lichtenstein JLL, Pruitt JN, Modlmeier AP (2016a) Intraspecific variation in collective behaviors drives interspecific contests in acorn ants. Behav Ecol 27:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lichtenstein JLL, Wright CM, Luscuskie LP, Montgomery GA, Pinter-Wollman N, Pruitt JN (2016b) Participation in cooperative prey capture and the benefits gained from it are associated with individual personality. Current ZoologyGoogle Scholar
  129. List C, Elsholtz C, Seeley TD (2009) Independence and interdependence in collective decision making: an agent-based model of nest-site choice by honeybee swarms. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 364:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lubin Y (1995) Is there division-of-labor in the social spider Achaearanea wau (Theridiidae). Anim Behav 49:1315–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lubin Y, Bilde T (2007) The evolution of sociality in spiders. Adv Study Behav 37(37):83–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mallon EB, Pratt SC, Franks NR (2001) Individual and collective decision-making during nest site selection by the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50:352–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Marting PR, Wcislo WT, Pratt SC (2018) Colony personality and plant health in the Azteca-Cecropia mutualism. Behav Ecol 29(1):264–271Google Scholar
  134. Mattila HR, Seeley TD (2007) Genetic diversity in honey bee colonies enhances productivity and fitness. Science 317:362–364PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. McDonald ND, Rands SA, Hill F, Elder C, Ioannou CC (2016) Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging. Sci Adv 2(9):e1600892PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Medina-Garcia A, Jawor JM, Wright TF (2017) Cognition, personality, and stress in budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. Behav Ecol 28:1504–1516PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mizumoto N, Matsuura K (2013) Colony-specific architecture of shelter tubes by termites. Insect Soc 60:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mizumoto N, Kobayashi K, Matsuura K (2015) Emergence of intercolonial variation in termite shelter tube patterns and prediction of its underlying mechanism. R Soc Open Sci 2Google Scholar
  139. Modlmeier AP, Forrester NJ, Pruitt JN (2014a) Habitat structure helps guide the emergence of colony-level personality in social spiders. In Behavioral Ecology and SociobiologyGoogle Scholar
  140. Modlmeier AP, Keiser CN, Shearer TA, Pruitt JN (2014b) Species-specific influence of group composition on collective behaviors in ants. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:1929–1937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Modlmeier AP, Keiser CN, Watters JV, Sih A, Pruitt JN (2014c) The keystone individual concept: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Anim Behav 89:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Modlmeier AP, Laskowski KL, DeMarco AE, Coleman A, Zhao K, Brittingham HA, McDermott DR, Pruitt JN (2014d) Persistent social interactions beget more pronounced personalities in a desert-dwelling social spider. In Biology Letters, pp 2014-19Google Scholar
  143. Modlmeier AP, Laskowski KL, Brittingham HA, Coleman A, Knutson KA, Kuo C, McGuirk M, Zhao K, Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2015) Adult presence augments juvenile collective foraging in social spiders. Anim Behav 109:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Montgomery SH, Capellini I, Venditti C, Barton RA, Mundy NI (2010) Adaptive evolution of four microcephaly genes and the evolution of brain size in anthropoid primates. Mol Biol Evol 28:625–638PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Muratori FB, Rouyar A, Hance T (2014) Clonal variation in aggregation and defensive behavior in pea aphids. Behav Ecol 25:901–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Muscedere ML, Traniello JF (2012) Division of labor in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole is associated with distinct subcaste-and age-related patterns of worker brain organization. PLoS One 7:316–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nawroth C, Prentice PM, McElligott AG (2017) Individual personality differences in goats predict their performance in visual learning and non-associative cognitive tasks. Behav Process 134:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Nentwig W (1985) Social spiders catch larger prey - a study of Anelosimus eximius (Araneae, Theridiidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 17:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Niemela PT, Vainikka A, Lahdenpera S, Kortet R (2012) Nymphal density, behavioral development, and life history in a field cricket. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 66:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Nonacs P, Kapheim KM (2007) Social heterosis and the maintenance of genetic diversity. J Evol Biol 20:2253–2265PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Nonacs P, Kapheim KM (2008) Social heterosis and the maintenance of genetic diversity at the genome level. J Evol Biol 21:631–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Norman VC, Pamminger T, Hughes WOH (2017) The effects of disturbance threat on leaf-cutting ant colonies: a laboratory study. Insect Soc 64:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. O'Donnell S, Bulova SJ, DeLeon S, Khodak P, Miller S, Sulger E (2015) Distributed cognition and social brains: reductions in mushroom body investment accompanied the origins of sociality in wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 282Google Scholar
  154. Page RE, Robinson GE (1991) The genetics of division-of-labor in honey-bee colonies. Advances in Insect Physiology 23:117–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Page RE, Erber J, Fondrk MK (1998) The effect of genotype on response thresholds to sucrose and foraging behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). J Comp Physiol-Neuroethol Sensory Neural Behav Physiol 182:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Paleolog J (2009) Behavioural characteristics of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies containing mix of workers of divergent behavioural traits. Anim Sci Paper Rep 27:237–248Google Scholar
  157. Pamminger T, Scharf I, Pennings PS, Foitzik S (2011) Increased host aggression as an induced defense against slave-making ants. Behav Ecol 22(2):255–260PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pamminger T, Modlmeier AP, Suette S, Pennings PS, Foitzik S (2012) Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies. Biol Lett 8:748–750PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pankiw T (2003) Directional change in a suite of foraging behaviors in tropical and temperate evolved honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pankiw T, Page RE (1999) The effect of genotype, age, sex, and caste on response thresholds to sucrose and foraging behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). J Comp Physiol-Sensory Neural Behav Physiol 185:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Pankiw T, Page RE (2000) Response thresholds to sucrose predict foraging division of labor in honeybees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 47:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pankiw T, Page RE (2003) Effect of pheromones, hormones, and handling on sucrose response thresholds of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 189:675–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pankiw T, Page RE, Fondrk MK (1998) Brood pheromone stimulates pollen foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 44:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pankiw T, Waddington KD, Page RE (2001) Modulation of sucrose response thresholds in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): influence of genotype, feeding, and foraging experience. J Comp Physiol-Sensory Neural Behav Physiol 187:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Parr CL (2008) Dominant ants can control assemblage species richness in a South African savanna. J Anim Ecol 77:1191–1198PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Pasquaretta C, Jeanson R (2018) Division of labor as a bipartite network. Behav Ecol 29:342–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Pasquier G, Gruter C (2016) Individual learning performance and exploratory activity are linked to colony foraging success in a mass-recruiting ant. Behav Ecol 27:1702–1709Google Scholar
  168. Passino KM, Seeley TD, Visscher PK (2008) Swarm cognition in honey bees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Pearce AN, Huang ZY, Breed MD (2001) Juvenile hormone and aggression in honey bees. J Insect Physiol 47:1243–1247PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Peckmezian T, Taylor PW (2015) A virtual reality paradigm for the study of visually mediated behaviour and cognition in spiders. Anim Behav 107:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Perez-Barberia FJ, Shultz S, Dunbar RIM (2007) Evidence for coevolution of sociality and relative brain size in three orders of mammals. Evolution 61:2811–2821PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Perkins TA, Riechert SE, Jones TC (2007) Interactions between the social spider Anelosimus studiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae) and foreign spiders that frequent its nests. J Arachnol 35:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pinter-Wollman N (2015) Nest architecture shapes the collective behaviour of harvester ants. Biol Lett 11Google Scholar
  174. Pinter-Wollman N, Gordon DM, Holmes S (2012) Nest site and weather affect the personality of harvester ant colonies. Behav Ecol 23:1022–1029PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Planas-Sitja I, Deneubourg JL, Gibon C, Sempo G (2015) Group personality during collective decision-making: a multi-level approach. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 282Google Scholar
  176. Powers KS, Aviles L (2007) The role of prey size and abundance in the geographical distribution of spider sociality. J Anim Ecol 76:995–1003PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Pratt SC, Mallon EB, Sumpter DJT, Franks NR (2002) Quorum sensing, recruitment, and collective decision-making during colony emigration by the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pruitt JN (2012) Behavioural traits of colony founders affect the life history of their colonies. Ecol Lett 15:1026–1032PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Pruitt JN (2013) A real-time eco-evolutionary dead-end strategy is mediated by the traits of lineage progenitors and interactions with colony invaders. Ecol Lett 16:879–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pruitt JN, Avilés L (2017) Social spiders: mildly successful social animals with much untapped research potential. Animal BehaviourGoogle Scholar
  181. Pruitt JN, Ferrari MCO (2011) Intraspecific trait variants determine the nature of interspecific interactions in a habitat-forming species. Ecology 92:1902–1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Pruitt JN, Goodnight CJ (2014) Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted colony compositions. NatureGoogle Scholar
  183. Pruitt JN, Keiser CN (2014) The personality types of key catalytic individuals shape colonies’ collective behaviour and success. Anim Behav 93:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Pruitt JN, Modlmeier AP (2015) Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild. J Anim Ecol 84(6):1461–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE (2009) Frequency-dependent success of cheaters during foraging bouts might limit their spread within colonies of a socially polymorphic spider. Evolution 63:2966–2973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE (2011a) How within-group behavioural variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 278:1209–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE (2011b) Within-group behavioral variation promotes biased task performance and the emergence of a defensive caste in a social spider. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 65:1055–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE, Jones TC (2008) Behavioural syndromes and their fitness consequences in a socially polymorphic spider, Anelosimus studiosus. Anim Behav 76:871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pruitt JN, Iturralde G, Aviles L, Riechert SE (2011) Amazonian social spiders share similar within-colony behavioural variation and behavioural syndromes. Anim Behav 82:1449–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pruitt JN, Cote J, Ferrari MCO (2012a) Behavioural trait variants in a habitat-forming species dictate the nature of its interactions with and among heterospecifics. Funct Ecol 26:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Pruitt JN, Oufiero CE, Aviles L, Riechert SE (2012b) Iterative evolution of increased behavioral variation characterizes the transition to sociality in spiders and proves advantageous. Am Nat 180:496–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Pruitt JN, Grinsted L, Settepani V (2013) Linking levels of personality: personalities of the ‘average’ and ‘most extreme’ group members predict colony-level personality. Anim Behav 86:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Pruitt JN, Wright CM, Keiser CN, DeMarco AE, Grobis MM, Pinter-Wollman N (2016) The Achilles’ heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success. Proc R Soc B 283(1823):20152888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Pruitt JN, Goodnight CJ, Riechert SE (2017a) Intense group selection selects for ideal group compositions, but selection within groups maintains them. Anim Behav 124:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pruitt JN, Wright CM, Lichtenstein JLL, Chism GT, McEwen BL, Kamath A, Pinter-Wollman N (2017b) Selection for collective aggressiveness favors social susceptibility in social spiders. Curr Biol 28:100–105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Quesada R, Triana E, Vargas G, Douglass JK, Seid MA, Niven JE, Eberhard WG, Wcislo WT (2011) The allometry of CNS size and consequences of miniaturization in orb-weaving and cleptoparasitic spiders. Arthropod Struct Dev 40:521–529PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Raine NE, Chittka L (2005) Colour preferences in relation to the foraging performance and fitness of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Uludag Bee J 5:145–150Google Scholar
  198. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) The adaptive significance of sensory bias in a foraging context: floral colour preferences in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. PLoS One 2Google Scholar
  199. Raine NE, Chittka L (2008) The correlation of learning speed and natural foraging success in bumble-bees. Proceed Royal Soc B-Biol Sci 275:803–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Raine NE, Chittka L (2012) No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies. Plos One:7Google Scholar
  201. Raine NE, Ings TC, Ramos-Rodriguez O, Chittka L (2006) Intercolony variation in learning performance of a wild British bumblebee population (Hymenoptera : Apidae : Bombus terrestris audax). Entomol Gen 28:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Reznikova Z (2008) Experimental paradigms for studying cognition and communication in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol News 11:201–214Google Scholar
  203. Riddiford LM (2012) How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction? Gen Comp Endocrinol 179:477–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rittschof CC (2017) Sequential social experiences interact to modulate aggression but not brain gene expression in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Front Zool 14Google Scholar
  205. Robinson GE (1992) Regulation of division-of-labor in insect societies. Annu Rev Entomol 37:637–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Robinson GE, Ben-Shahar Y (2002) Social behavior and comparative genomics: new genes or new gene regulation? Genes Brain Behav 1:197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Robinson GEP, Page E Jr (1989) Genetic basis for division of labour in an insect society. In: The genetics of social evolution. West-view Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  208. Robinson GE, Page RE, Huang ZY (1994) Temporal polyethism in social insects is a developmental process. Anim Behav 48:467–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Ross KG, Keller L (2002) Experimental conversion of colony social organization by manipulation of worker genotype composition in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Rowell DM, Aviles L (1995) Sociality in a bark-dwelling huntsman spider from Australia, Delena cancerides Walckenaer (Araneae, Sparassidae). Insect Soc 42:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Rowles AD, O'Dowd DJ (2007) Interference competition by Argentine ants displaces native ants: implications for biotic resistance to invasion. Biol Invasions 9:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Salazar MOL, Planas-Sitja I, Sempo G, Deneubourg JL (2018) Individual thigmotactic preference affects the fleeing behavior of the American cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae). J Insect Sci 18Google Scholar
  213. Sasaki T, Pratt SC (2012) Groups have a larger cognitive capacity than individuals. Curr Biol 22:R827–R829PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Sasaki T, Pratt SC (2018) The psychology of superorganisms: collective decision making by insect societies. Annu Rev Entomol 63(63):259–275PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Sasaki T, Granovskiy B, Mann RP, Sumpter DJT, Pratt SC (2013) Ant colonies outperform individuals when a sensory discrimination task is difficult but not when it is easy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:13769–13773PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Scharf I, Modlmeier AP, Fries S, Tirard C, Foitzik S (2012) Characterizing the collective personality of ant societies: aggressive colonies do not abandon their home. PLoS One 7(3):e33314PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Scheiner R, Erber J, Page RE (1999) Tactile learning and the individual evaluation of the reward in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). J Comp Physiol-Sensory Neural Behav Physiol 185:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Scheiner R, Barnert M, Erber J (2003) Variation in water and sucrose responsiveness during the foraging season affects proboscis extension learning in honey bees. Apidologie 34:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Scheiner R, Page RE, Erber J (2004) Sucrose responsiveness and behavioral plasticity in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Apidologie 35:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Schneider JM, Roos J, Lubin Y, Henschel JR (2001) Dispersal of Stegodyphus dumicola (Araneae, Eresidae): they do balloon after all! J Arachnol 29:114–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Schulz DJ, Sullivan JP, Robinson GE (2002) Juvenile hormone and octopamine in the regulation of division of labor in honey bee colonies. Horm Behav 42:222–231PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. Seeley TD (1978) Life history strategy of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. In, Oecologia, pp 109-118Google Scholar
  223. Seeley TD (1982) Adaptive significance of the age polyethism schedule in honeybee colonies. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 11:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Seeley TD (1985) Honeybee ecology. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Seeley TD, Buhrman SC (1999) Group decision making in swarms of honey bees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 45:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Seeley TD, Visscher PK (2004) Quorum sensing during nest-site selection by honeybee swarms. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 56:594–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Segev U, Burkert L, Feldmeyer B, Foitzik S (2017) Pace-of-life in a social insect: behavioral syndromes in ants shift along a climatic gradient. Behav Ecol 28:1149–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Seid MA, Traniello JF (2006) Age-related repertoire expansion and division of labor in Pheidole dentata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new perspective on temporal polyethism and behavioral plasticity in ants. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60:631–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Settepani V, Grinsted L, Granfeldt J, Jensen JL, Bilde T (2013) Task specialization in two social spiders, Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) and Anelosimus eximius (Theridiidae). J Evol Biol 26:51–62PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Shaw RC, Schmelz M (2017) Cognitive test batteries in animal cognition research: evaluating the past, present and future of comparative psychometrics. Anim Cogn 20:1003–1018PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC (2004) Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol Evol 19:372–378PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. Sih A, Cote J, Evans M, Fogarty S, Pruitt J (2012) Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. Ecol Lett 15:278–289PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Sloan Wilson D, Clark AB, Coleman K, Dearstyne T (1994) Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals. Trends Ecol Evol 9:442–446PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. Smith JM (1979) Game theory and the evolution of behavior. Proc R Soc Ser B Biol Sci 205:475–488Google Scholar
  235. Smith CR, Toth AL, Suarez AV, Robinson GE (2008) Genetic and genomic analyses of the division of labour in insect societies. Nat Rev Genet 9:735–748PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. Stanley DA, Smith KE, Raine NE (2015) Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide. Sci Rep 5Google Scholar
  237. Strassmann J (2001) The rarity of multiple mating by females in the social Hymenoptera. Insect Soc 48:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Street SE, Navarrete AF, Reader SM, Laland KN (2017) Coevolution of cultural intelligence, extended life history, sociality, and brain size in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:7908–7914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Liang D, Tsutsui ND, Case TJ (2002) Spatiotemporal patterns of intraspecific aggression in the invasive Argentine ant. Anim Behav 64(5):697–708Google Scholar
  240. Sullivan J, Jassim O, Fahrbach S, Robinson G (2000) Juvenile hormone paces behavioral development in the adult worker honey bee. In Hormones and behavior, pp 1-14Google Scholar
  241. Sumpter DJT, Pratt SC (2009) Quorum responses and consensus decision making. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 364:743–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Suryanarayanan S, Jeanne RL (2008) Antennal drumming, trophallaxis, and colony development in the social wasp Polistes fuscatus(Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ethology 114:1201–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Suryanarayanan S, Hermanson JC, Jeanne RL (2011) A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp. Curr Biol 21:231–235PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. Theraulaz G, Bonabeau E (1995) Coordination in distributed building. Science 269:686–688PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. Theraulaz G, Bonabeau E, Deneubourg J-L (1998a) The origin of nest complexity in social insects. Complexity 3:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Theraulaz G, Bonabeau E, Deneubourg JL (1998b) Response threshold reinforcement and division of labour in insect societies. Proceed Royal Soc B-Biol Sci 265:327–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Theraulaz G, Bonabeau E, Nicolis SC, Sole RV, Fourcassie V, Blanco S, Fournier R, Joly JL, Fernandez P, Grimal A, Dalle P, Deneubourg JL (2002) Spatial patterns in ant colonies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9645-9649Google Scholar
  248. Tibbetts EA, Huang ZY (2010) The challenge hypothesis in an insect: juvenile hormone increases during reproductive conflict following queen loss in Polistes wasps. Am Nat 176:123–130PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. Tizo-Pedroso E, Del-Claro K (2011) Is there division of labor in cooperative pseudoscorpions? An analysis of the behavioral repertoire of a tropical species. Ethology 117:498–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Toth AL, Robinson GE (2005) Worker nutrition and division of labour in honeybees. Anim Behav 69:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Traniello JFA, Fujita MS, Bowen RV (1984) Ant foraging behavior - ambient-temperature influences prey selection. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 15:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Urlacher E, Monchanin C, Riviere C, Richard FJ, Lombardi C, Michelsen-Heath S, Hageman KJ, Mercer AR (2016) Measurements of chlorpyrifos levels in forager bees and comparison with levels that disrupt honey bee odor-mediated learning under laboratory conditions. J Chem Ecol 42:127–138PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  253. Vanhonk C, Hogeweg P (1981) The ontogeny of the social-structure in a captive Bombus terrestris colony. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Visscher PK (2007) Group decision making in nest-site selection among social insects. Annu Rev Entomol 52:255–275PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. Vogel D, Nicolis SC, Perez-Escudero A, Nanjundiah V, Sumpter DJT, Dussutour A (2015) Phenotypic variability in unicellular organisms: from calcium signalling to social behaviour. Proc R Soc B 282(1819):20152322PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  256. Wang J, Wurm Y, Nipitwattanaphon M, Riba-Grognuz O, Huang YC, Shoemaker D, Keller L (2013) A Y-like social chromosome causes alternative colony organization in fire ants. Nature 493:664–668PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. Wheeler DE, Buck N, Evans JD (2006) Expression of insulin pathway genes during the period of caste determination in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Insect Mol Biol 15:597–602PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Whitfield CW, Cziko AM, Robinson GE (2003) Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302:296–299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  259. Wickler W, Seibt U (1993) Pedogenetic sociogenesis via the sibling-route and some consequences for Stegodyphus spiders. Ethology 95:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wiernasz DC, Cole BA, Cole BJ (2014) Defending the nest: variation in the alarm aggression response and nest mound damage in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Insect Soc 61:273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Wilcox RS, Jackson RR (1998) Cognitive abilities of araneophagic jumping spiders. In Animal cognition in nature, pp 411-434Google Scholar
  262. Wolf M, van Doorn GS, Leimar O, Weissing FJ (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities. Nature 447:581–584PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Wray MK, Seeley TD (2011) Consistent personality differences in house-hunting behavior but not decision speed in swarms of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 65:2061–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wray MK, Mattila HR, Seeley TD (2011) Collective personalities in honeybee colonies are linked to colony fitness. Anim Behav 81:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Wright CM, Holbrook CT, Pruitt JN (2014) Animal personality aligns task specialization and task proficiency in a spider society. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:9533–9537PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wright CM, Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2015) Personality and morphology shape task participation, collective foraging and escape behaviour in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Anim Behav 105:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Wright CM, Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2016a) Colony personality composition alters colony-level plasticity and magnitude of defensive behaviour in a social spider. In Animal Behaviour, pp 175-183Google Scholar
  268. Wright CM, Skinker VE, Izzo AS, Tibbetts EA, Pruitt JN (2016b) Queen personality type predicts nest-guarding behaviour, colony size and the subsequent collective aggressiveness of the colony. Anim Behav 124:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wright CM, Lichtenstein JLL, Montgomery GA, Luscuskie LP, Pinter-Wollman N, Pruitt JN (2017) Exposure to predators reduces collective foraging aggressiveness and eliminates its relationship with colony personality composition. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 71:126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Yip EC (2014) Ants versus spiders: interference competition between two social predators. Insect Soc 61:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Yip EC, Rayor LS (2011) Do social spiders cooperate in predator defense and foraging without a web? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 65:1935–1947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Yip EC, Rayor LS (2013) The influence of siblings on body condition in a social spider: is prey sharing cooperation or competition? Anim Behav 85:1161–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Yip EC, Powers KS, Aviles L (2008) Cooperative capture of large prey solves scaling challenge faced by spider societies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11818–11822PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Zayed A, Robinson GE (2012) Understanding the relationship between brain gene expression and social behavior: lessons from the honey bee. Ann Rev Gen 46(46):591–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Zhang SW, Lehrer M, Srinivasan MV (1999) Honeybee memory: Navigation by associative grouping and recall of visual stimuli. Neurobiol Learn Mem 72:180–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine BiologyUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Neurobiology & BehaviourMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l’Insecte (IRBI), UMR CNRS 7261François-Rabelais University of ToursToursFrance

Personalised recommendations