Advertisement

Endoscopic and surgical treatment options for chronic pancreatitis: an imaging perspective

  • Krishna Prasad ShanbhogueEmail author
  • Ali Pourvaziri
  • Satheesh Krishna Jeyaraj
  • Avinash Kambadakone
Special Section: Pancreatitis
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic fibro-inflammatory syndrome characterized by chronic pancreatic inflammation leading to fibrosis and scarring. Patients with this multifactorial debilitating illness often require endoscopic or surgical intervention for treatment. Radiologists play a crucial role in pre-therapeutic workup as well as post-treatment imaging of chronic pancreatitis. This review summarizes the most common surgical and endoscopic treatment options that are currently available for chronic pancreatitis, including the implications on imaging.

Keywords

Chronic Pancreatitis Endoscopic management Puestew Procedure 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Comfort MW, Gambill EE, Baggenstoss AH. Chronic relapsing pancreatitis; a study of 29 cases without associated disease of the biliary or gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology. 1946;6:376-408.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petrov MS, Yadav D. Global epidemiology and holistic prevention of pancreatitis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;16(3):175-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kleeff J, Whitcomb DC, Shimosegawa T, Esposito I, Lerch MM, Gress T, et al. Chronic pancreatitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17060.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hafezi-Nejad N, Singh VK, Johnson SI, Makary MA, Hirose K, Fishman EK, et al. Surgical approaches to chronic pancreatitis: indications and imaging findings. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2016;41(10):1980-96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, Ammann RW, Lankisch PG, Andersen JR, et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1433–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, Ammann RW, Lankisch PG, Andersen JR, et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1433-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Machicado JD, Yadav D. Epidemiology of Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis: Similarities and Differences. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62(7):1683-91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoffmeister A, Mayerle J, Beglinger C, Buchler MW, Bufler P, Dathe K, et al. English language version of the S3-consensus guidelines on chronic pancreatitis: Definition, aetiology, diagnostic examinations, medical, endoscopic and surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Z Gastroenterol. 2015;53(12):1447-95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Whipple AO. THE RATIONALE OF RADICAL SURGERY FOR CANCER OF THE PANCREAS AND AMPULLARY REGION. Annals of Surgery. 1941;114(4):612-5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamauchi FI, Ortega CD, Blasbalg R, Rocha MS, Jukemura J, Cerri GG. Multidetector CT Evaluation of the Postoperative Pancreas. RadioGraphics. 2012;32(3):743-64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmed Ali U, Pahlplatz JM, Nealon WH, van Goor H, Gooszen HG, Boermeester MA. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Löhr JM, Dominguez-Munoz E, Rosendahl J, Besselink M, Mayerle J, Lerch MM, et al. United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis (HaPanEU). United European Gastroenterology Journal. 2017;5(2):153-99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cahen DL, Gouma DJ, Nio Y, Rauws EAJ, Boermeester MA, Busch OR, et al. Endoscopic versus Surgical Drainage of the Pancreatic Duct in Chronic Pancreatitis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;356(7):676-84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ammann RW, Akovbiantz A, Largiader F, Schueler G. Course and outcome of chronic pancreatitis. Longitudinal study of a mixed medical-surgical series of 245 patients. Gastroenterology. 1984;86(5 Pt 1):820-8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lankisch PG, Löhr-Happe A, Otto J, Creutzfeldt W. Natural course in chronic pancreatitis. Pain, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and prognosis of the disease. Digestion. 1993;54(3):148-55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rattner DW, Castillo CF-d, Warshaw AL. Pitfalls of distal pancreatectomy for relief of pain in chronic pancreatitis. The American Journal of Surgery. 1996;171(1):142-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cattell RB. Anastomosis of the duct of Wirsung; its use in palliative operations for cancer of the head of the pancreas. The Surgical Clinics of North America. 1947;27(3):636-43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    DuVal MK. Pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. Surgery. 1957;41(6):1019-28.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zollinger RM, Keith LM, Ellison EH. Pancreatitis. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1954;251(13):497-502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bapat RD, Jadhav RN, Mohite JD, Rohandia OS. Modified Partington's procedure for pancreaticojejunostomy in chronic pancreatitis. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. 1997;16(2):54-5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kurian MS, Gagner M. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy (Partington-Rochelle) for chronic pancreatitis. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. 1999;6(4):382-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cunha JEM, Penteado S, Jukemura J, Machado MCC, Bacchella T. Surgical and Interventional Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2004;4(6):540-50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Han S-L, Chen J, Zhou H-Z, Lan S-H, Zhang P-C, Zhu G-B. Indications and surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT. 2008;7(6):638-42.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rios GA, Adam DB, Yeoh K-G, Tamasky PR, Cunningham JT, Hawes RH. Outcome of lateral pancreaticojejunostomy in the management of chronic pancreatitis with nondilated pancreatic ducts. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 1998;2(3):223-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Isaji S. Has the Partington procedure for chronic pancreatitis become a thing of the past? A review of the evidence. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences. 2010;17(6):763-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lerut JP, Gianello PR, Otte JB, Kestens PJ. Pancreaticoduodenal resection. Surgical experience and evaluation of risk factors in 103 patients. Annals of Surgery. 1984;199(4):432-7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Freed KS, Paulson EK, Frederick MG, Keogan MT, Pappas TN. Abdomen after a Puestow procedure: postoperative CT appearance, complications, and potential pitfalls. Radiology. 1997;203(3):790-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manes G, Büchler M, Piemmico O, Sebastiano PD, Malfertheiner P. Is increased pancreatic pressure related to pain in chronic pancreatitis? International Journal of Pancreatology. 1994;15(2):113-7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Proca DM, Ellison EC, Hibbert D, Frankel WL. Major pancreatic resections for chronic pancreatitis. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 2001;125(8):1051-4.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Büchler M, Weihe E, Friess H, Malfertheiner P, Bockman E, Müller S, et al. Changes in peptidergic innervation in chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1992;7(2):183-92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jimenez RE, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Rattner DW, Chang Y, Warshaw AL. Outcome of Pancreaticoduodenectomy With Pylorus Preservation or With Antrectomy in the Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis. Annals of Surgery. 2000;231(3):293-300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Braasch JW, Vito L, Nugent FW. Total pancreatectomy of end-stage chronic pancreatitis. Annals of Surgery. 1978;188(3):317-22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gall FP, Mühe E, Gebhardt C. Results of partial and total pancreaticoduodenectomy in 117 patients with chronic pancreatitis. World Journal of Surgery. 1981;5(2):269-73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bellin MD, Freeman ML, Gelrud A, Slivka A, Clavel A, Humar A, et al. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation in chronic pancreatitis: Recommendations from PancreasFest. Pancreatology. 2014;14(1):27-35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morgan K, Owczarski SM, Borckardt J, Madan A, Nishimura M, Adams DB. Pain Control and Quality of Life After Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation for Chronic Pancreatitis. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2012;16(1):129-34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walsh RM, Saavedra JRA, Lentz G, Guerron AD, Scheman J, Stevens T, et al. Improved Quality of Life Following Total Pancreatectomy and Auto-islet Transplantation for Chronic Pancreatitis. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2012;16(8):1469-77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dunderdale J, McAuliffe JC, McNeal SF, Bryant SMJ, Yancey BD, Flowers G, et al. Should Pancreatectomy with Islet Cell Autotransplantation in Patients with Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis Be Abandoned? Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2013;216(4):591-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bramis K, Gordon‐Weeks AN, Friend PJ, Bastin E, Burls A, Silva MA, et al. Systematic review of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation for chronic pancreatitis. BJS. 2012;99(6):761-6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chincarini M, Zamboni GA, Pozzi Mucelli R. Major pancreatic resections: normal postoperative findings and complications. Insights into Imaging. 2018;9(2):173-87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Haider M, Makary MA, Singh VK, Hirose K, Fishman EK, Zaheer A. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation for chronic pancreatitis: spectrum of postoperative CT findings. Abdominal Imaging. 2015;40(7):2411-23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mortelé KJ, Lemmerling M, de Hemptinne B, De Vos M, De Bock G, Kunnen M. Postoperative findings following the Whipple procedure: determination of prevalence and morphologic abdominal CT features. European Radiology. 2000;10(1):123-8.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Raman SP, Horton KM, Cameron JL, Fishman EK. CT After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Spectrum of Normal Findings and Complications. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2013;201(1):2-13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bassi C, Dervenis C, Butturini G, Fingerhut A, Yeo C, Izbicki J, et al. Postoperative pancreatic fistula: An international study group (ISGPF) definition. Surgery. 2005;138(1):8-13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Faccioli N, Foti G, Molinari E, Hermans JJ, Comai A, Talamini G, et al. Role of fistulography in evaluating pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The British Journal of Radiology. 2012;85(1011):219-24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koch M, Garden OJ, Padbury R, Rahbari NN, Adam R, Capussotti L, et al. Bile leakage after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery: A definition and grading of severity by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery. Surgery. 2011;149(5):680-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cieszanowski A, Stadnik A, Lezak A, Maj E, Zieniewicz K, Rowinska-Berman K, et al. Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Comparison of 20–25min delayed and 60–180min delayed images. European Journal of Radiology. 2013;82(12):2176-82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schulick RD. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy: intraabdominal abscess. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. 2008;15(3):252-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lermite E, Sommacale D, Piardi T, Arnaud J-P, Sauvanet A, Dejong CHC, et al. Complications after pancreatic resection: Diagnosis, prevention and management. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. 2013;37(3):230-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yekebas EF, Wolfram L, Cataldegirmen G, Habermann CR, Bogoevski D, Koenig AM, et al. Postpancreatectomy Hemorrhage: Diagnosis and Treatment. Annals of Surgery. 2007;246(2):269-80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wente MN, Veit JA, Bassi C, Dervenis C, Fingerhut A, Gouma DJ, et al. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH)–An International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Surgery. 2007;142(1):20-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aran S, Daftari Besheli L, Karcaaltincaba M, Gupta R, Flores EJ, Abujudeh HH. Applications of Dual-Energy CT in Emergency Radiology. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2014;202(4):W314-W24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Smoot RL, Christein JD, Farnell MB. Durability of portal venous reconstruction following resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2006;10(10):1371-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dixon S, Tapping CR, Walker JN, Bratby M, Anthony S, Boardman P, et al. The role of interventional radiology and imaging in pancreatic islet cell transplantation. Clinical Radiology. 2012;67(9):923-31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sutherland DER, Gruessner AC, Carlson AM, Blondet JJ, Balamurugan AN, Reigstad KF, et al. Islet Autotransplant Outcomes After Total Pancreatectomy: A Contrast to Islet Allograft Outcomes. Transplantation. 2008;86(12):1799-802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bhargava R, Senior PA, Ackerman TE, Ryan EA, Paty BW, Lakey JRT, et al. Prevalence of Hepatic Steatosis After Islet Transplantation and Its Relation to Graft Function. Diabetes. 2004;53(5):1311-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jackson S, Mager DR, Bhargava R, Ackerman T, Imes S, Hubert G, et al. Long-term follow-up of hepatic ultrasound findings in subjects with magnetic resonance imaging defined hepatic steatosis following clinical islet transplantation. Islets. 2013;5(1):16-21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Low G, Hussein N, Owen RJ, Toso C, Patel VH, Bhargava R, et al. Role of imaging in clinical islet transplantation. Radiographics. 2010;30(2):353-66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Beger H, Kunz R, Poch B. The beger procedure?duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2004;8(8):1090-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Frey CF, Amikura K. Local resection of the head of the pancreas combined with longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Annals of Surgery. 1994;220(4):492-507.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gloor B, Friess H, Uhl W, Büchler MW. A modified technique of the Beger and Frey procedure in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Digestive Surgery. 2001;18(1):21-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Izbicki JR, Bloechle C, Broering DC, Kuechler T, Broelsch CE. Longitudinal V-shaped excision of the ventral pancreas for small duct disease in severe chronic pancreatitis: prospective evaluation of a new surgical procedure. Annals of Surgery. 1998;227(2):213-9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cahen DL, Gouma DJ, Laramee P, Nio Y, Rauws EA, Boermeester MA, et al. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic vs surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(5):1690-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dominguez-Munoz JE, Drewes AM, Lindkvist B, Ewald N, Czako L, Rosendahl J, et al. Recommendations from the United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2018;18(8):847-54.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guda NM, Partington S, Freeman ML. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the management of chronic calcific pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. JOP. 2005;6(1):6-12.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Moole H, Jaeger A, Bechtold ML, Forcione D, Taneja D, Puli SR. Success of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis Management: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Pancreas. 2016;45(5):651-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nguyen-Tang T, Dumonceau JM. Endoscopic treatment in chronic pancreatitis, timing, duration and type of intervention. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;24(3):281-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Choi EK, McHenry L, Watkins JL, Sherman S, Fogel EL, Cote GA, et al. Use of intravenous secretin during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to facilitate endoscopic clearance of pancreatic duct stones. Pancreatology. 2012;12(3):272-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dumonceau JM, Delhaye M, Tringali A, et al. (2019) Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline - Updated August 2018. Endoscopy. 51(2):179–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Beyna T, Neuhaus H, Gerges C. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic duct stones under direct vision: Revolution or resignation? Systematic review. Dig Endosc. 2018;30(1):29-37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ohyama H, Mikata R, Ishihara T, Tsuyuguchi T, Sakai Y, Sugiyama H, et al. Efficacy of stone density on noncontrast computed tomography in predicting the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for patients with pancreatic stones. Pancreas. 2015;44(3):422-8.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shen Y, Liu M, Chen M, Li Y, Lu Y, Zou X. Covered metal stent or multiple plastic stents for refractory pancreatic ductal strictures in chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review. Pancreatology. 2014;14(2):87-90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Deviere J. EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage: a rare indication in need of prospective evidence. Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;85(1):178-80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bakman Y, Freeman ML. Pancreatic Stent-Induced Ductal Injury: Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Endoscopic Therapy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2009;69(5):AB125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Freeman ML. Pancreatic Stents for Prevention of Post–Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2007;5(11):1354-65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Seicean A, Vultur S. Endoscopic therapy in chronic pancreatitis: current perspectives. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2015;8:1-11.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Manfredi R, Pozzi Mucelli R. Secretin-enhanced MR Imaging of the Pancreas. Radiology. 2016;279(1):29-43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Andren-Sandberg A, Dervenis C. Pancreatic pseudocysts in the 21st century. Part I: classification, pathophysiology, anatomic considerations and treatment. JOP. 2004;5(1):8-24.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Panamonta N, Ngamruengphong S, Kijsirichareanchai K, Nugent K, Rakvit A. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided versus conventional transmural techniques have comparable treatment outcomes in draining pancreatic pseudocysts. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;24(12):1355-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fockens P. EUS in drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56(4 Suppl):S93-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Arvanitakis M, Delhaye M, Bali MA, Matos C, De Maertelaer V, Le Moine O, et al. Pancreatic-fluid collections: a randomized controlled trial regarding stent removal after endoscopic transmural drainage. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65(4):609-19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Varadarajulu S, Christein JD, Wilcox CM. Frequency of complications during EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections in 148 consecutive patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26(10):1504-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, Gooszen HG, Johnson CD, Sarr MG, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis—2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62(1):102-11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Baron TH, Harewood GC, Morgan DE, Yates MR. Outcome differences after endoscopic drainage of pancreatic necrosis, acute pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2002;56(1):7-17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kamal A, Singh VK, Akshintala VS, Kawamoto S, Tsai S, Haider M, et al. CT and MRI assessment of symptomatic organized pancreatic fluid collections and pancreatic duct disruption: an interreader variability study using the revised Atlanta classification 2012. Abdom Imaging. 2015;40(6):1608-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Abdallah AA, Krige JE, Bornman PC. Biliary tract obstruction in chronic pancreatitis. HPB (Oxford). 2007;9(6):421-8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Regimbeau JM, Fuks D, Bartoli E, Fumery M, Hanes A, Yzet T, et al. A comparative study of surgery and endoscopy for the treatment of bile duct stricture in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(10):2902-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna Prasad Shanbhogue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ali Pourvaziri
    • 2
  • Satheesh Krishna Jeyaraj
    • 3
  • Avinash Kambadakone
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNYU Langone HealthNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital, Women’s College HospitalUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical SchoolMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations