The application of cinematic rendering to CT evaluation of upper tract urothelial tumors: principles and practice
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Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively uncommon but aggressive genitourinary malignancy for which multi-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in evaluation and staging. 3D imaging with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume-rendered (VR) images has been described as a useful means of evaluating UTUC. In this study, we describe the technique of a novel 3D methodology known as cinematic rendering (CR) and provide clinical examples of UTUC visualized with CR. CR utilizes a complex universal lighting model in order to create photorealistic images with improved detail and depth in comparison to MIP or VR images. In the case of UTUC, CR can be used in different contrast phases to show abnormally thickened and enhancing urothelium or filling defects in the renal collecting system or ureters in the excretory phase. CR images can also be manipulated in order to generate translucent views of the upper urinary tract in order to add conspicuity to intraluminal findings.
KeywordsUTUC 3D Computed tomography CR
No funding was received by the authors in relation to writing this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
EKF receives research support from Siemens and GE Healthcare and is a co-founder and stockholder in HipGraphics, Inc. The other authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to report.
This manuscript does not detail a defined study and no ethical approval was necessary.
No patient data is included in this manuscript and informed consent was not applicable.