Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 2602–2626 | Cite as

Imaging findings during and after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors

  • Lisa Ratanaprasatporn
  • Nisha SainaniEmail author
  • Jeremy B. Duda
  • Ayaz Aghayev
  • Servet Tatli
  • Stuart G. Silverman
  • Paul B. Shyn



Imaging plays a key role in the assessment of patients before, during, and after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors. Intra-procedural and early post-procedure imaging with CT and MRI is vital to the assessment of technical success including adequacy of ablation zone coverage. Recognition of the normal expected post-procedure findings of hepatic cryoablation such as ice ball formation, hydrodissection, and the normal appearance of the ablation zone is crucial to be able to differentiate from complications including vascular, biliary, or non-target organ injury. Delayed imaging is essential for determination of clinical effectiveness and detection of unexpected findings such as residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of expected and unexpected imaging findings that may occur during or after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors.


Differentiating expected from unexpected findings during and after hepatic cryoablation helps radiologists identify residual or recurrent tumor and detect procedure-related complications.


Hepatic Cryoablation Ice-ball Percutaneous CT MRI 



  1. 1.
    Littrup PJ, Aoun HD, Adam B, Krycia M, Prus M, Shields A. Percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors: long-term experience of a large U.S. series. Abdom Radiol. 2016 Apr;41(4):767–80.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glazer DI, Tatli S, Shyn PB, Vangel MG, Tuncali K, Silverman SG. Percutaneous Image-Guided Cryoablation of Hepatic Tumors: Single-Center Experience With Intermediate to Long-Term Outcomes. Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Dec;209(6):1381–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ross WB, Horton M, Bertolino P, Morris DL. Cryotherapy of Liver Tumours–A Practical Guide. HPB Surgery. 1995;8:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shafir M, Shapiro R, Sung M, Warner R, Sicular A, Klipfei A. Cryoablation of unresectable malignant liver tumors. Am J Surg. 1996;171(1):27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Onik G, Porterfield B, Rubinsky B, Zemel R, Weaver L, Diamond D, et al. Ultrasound‐guided hepatic cryosurgery in the treatment of metastatic colon carcinoma. Preliminary results. Cancer. 2006 Jun 29;67(4):901–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weaver ML, Atkinson D, Zemel R. Hepatic cryosurgery in the treatment of unresectable metastases. Surg Oncol. 1995 Oct;4(5):231–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sarantou T, Bilchik A, Ramming KP. Complications of hepatic cryosurgery. Semin Surg Oncol. 1998 Dec 7;14(2):156–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee FT, Littrup PJ, Chosy SG. Minimally invasive alternatives to traditional operative hepatic cryoablation: works in progress. Surg Technol Int. 1998;7:69–78.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shock SA, Laeseke PF, Sampson LA, Lewis WD, Winter III TC, Fine JP, et al. Hepatic Hemorrhage Caused by Percutaneous Tumor Ablation: Radiofrequency Ablation versus Cryoablation in a Porcine Model. Radiology. 2005 Jul;236(1):125–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dohi M, Harada J, Mogami T, Fukuda K, Toyama Y, Kashiwagi H. MR‐guided percutaneous cryotherapy of malignant liver tumor under horizontal‐magnetic open system: initial experience. J Hepato‐Biliary‐Pancreatic Surg. 2003 Oct 1;10(5):360–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morrison PR, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Tatli S. MRI-guided cryotherapy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Feb;27(2):410–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bang HJ, Littrup PJ, Currier BP, Goodrich DJ, Aoun HD, Klein LC, et al. Percutaneous Cryoablation of Metastatic Lesions from Non–Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Initial Survival, Local Control, and Cost Observations. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012 Jun;23(6):761–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Allen BC, Remer EM. Percutaneous Cryoablation of Renal Tumors: Patient Selection, Technique, and Postprocedural Imaging. RadioGraphics. 2010 Jul;30(4):887–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee FT, Chosy SG, Littrup PJ, Warner TF, Kulhman JE, Mahvi DM. CT-monitored percutaneous cryoablation in a pig liver model: pilot study. Radiology. 1999;211:687–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shyn PB, Mauri G, Alencar RO, Tatli S, Shah SH, Morrison PR, et al. Percutaneous imaging-guided cryoablation of liver tumors: predicting local progression on 24-hour MRI. Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203(2):W181–W191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Adams DF, vanSonnenberg E, Zou KH, Kacher DF, et al. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy of liver tumors: initial experience. Radiology. 2000;217(3):657–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weiss J, Rempp H, Clasen S, Notohamiprodjo M, Keßler D-E, Pereira PL, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of different magnetic resonance imaging sequences for detecting local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation of hepatic malignancies. Eur J Radiol. 2017 Sep;94:85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoffmann R, Rempp H, Schraml C, Schwenzer N, Grözinger G, Blumenstock G, et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging during MR-guided radiofrequency ablation of hepatic malignancies: analysis of immediate pre- and post-ablative diffusion characteristics. Acta Radiol. 2015 Aug;56(8):908–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shao et al. - 2017 - Evaluation of efficacy of transcatheter arterial c.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2019 Mar 6]. Available from:
  20. 20.
    García-Figueiras R, Goh VJ, Padhani AR, et al. (2013) CT Perfusion in Oncologic Imaging: a Useful Tool? Am J Roentgenol. 200(1):8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    d’Assignies G, Couvelard A, Bahrami S, Vullierme M-P, Hammel P, Hentic O, et al. Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors: Tumor Blood Flow Assessed with Perfusion CT Reflects Angiogenesis and Correlates with Prognostic Factors. Radiology. 2009 Feb;250(2):407–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goh V, Halligan S, Daley F, Wellsted DM, Guenther T, Bartram CI. Colorectal Tumor Vascularity: Quantitative Assessment with Multidetector CT—Do Tumor Perfusion Measurements Reflect Angiogenesis? Radiology. 2008 Nov;249(2):510–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Erinjeri JP, Clark TWI. Cryoablation: Mechanism of Action and Devices. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010 Aug;21(8):S187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Popken F, Seifert JK, Engelmann R, Dutkowski P, Nassir F, Junginger T. Comparison of Iceball Diameter and Temperature Distribution Achieved with 3-mm Accuprobe Cryoprobes in Porcine and Human Liver Tissue and Human Colorectal Liver Metastases in Vitro. Cryobiology. 2000 Jun;40(4):302–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cheolkyun Kim, O’Rourke AP, Mahvi DM, Webster JG. Finite-Element Analysis of Ex Vivo and In Vivo Hepatic Cryoablation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007;54(7):1177–85.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chosy SG, Nakada SY, Lee FT, Warner TF. Monitoring renal cryosurgery: predictors of tissue necrosis in swine. J Urol. 1998;159(4):1370–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jacob G, Kurzer MN, Fuller BJ. An assessment of tumor cell viability after in vitro freezing. Cryobiology. 1985;22(5):417–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu B, Xiao Y-Y, Zhang X, Zhang A-L, Li H-J, Gao D-F. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided percutaneous cryoablation of hepatocellular carcinoma in special regions. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Int. 2010;9(4):384–392.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang A, Xu LX, Sandison GA, Cheng S. Morphological study of endothelial cells during freezing. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Dec 7;51(23):6047–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weber SM, Lee FT, Chinn DO, Warner T, Chosy SG, Mahvi DM. Perivascular and intralesional tissue necrosis after hepatic cryoablation: results in a porcine model. Surgery. 1997;122(4):742–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baust JG, Gage AA, Clarke D, Baust JM, Buskirk RV. Cryosurgery—a putative approach to molecular-based optimization. Cryobiology. 2004 Apr;48(2):190–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baust JG, Gage AA. The molecular basis of cryosurgery. BJU Int. 2005 Jun;95(9):1187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuszyk BS, Choti MA, Urban BA, Chambers TP, Bluemke DA, Sitzmann JV, et al. Hepatic tumors treated by cryosurgery: normal CT appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(2):363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tatsutani K, Rubinsky B, Onik G, Dahiya R. Effect of thermal variables on frozen human primary prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Urology. 1996;48(3):441–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gage AA, Guest K, Montes M, Caruana JA, Whalen DA. Effect of varying freezing and thawing rates in experimental cryosurgery. Cryobiology. 1985;22(2):175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuszyk BS, Boitnott JK, Choti MA, Bluemke DA, Sheth S, Magee CA, et al. Local tumor recurrence following hepatic cryoablation: radiologic-histopathologic correlation in a rabbit model. Radiology. 2000;217(2):477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Permpongkosol S, Link RE, Kavoussi LR, Solomon SB. Temperature Measurements of the Low-Attenuation Radiographic Ice Ball During CT-Guided Renal Cryoablation. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2008 Jan;31(1):116–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rosenberg MD, Kim CY, Tsivian M, Suberlak MN, Sopko DR, Polascik TJ, et al. Percutaneous Cryoablation of Renal Lesions With Radiographic Ice Ball Involvement of the Renal Sinus: Analysis of Hemorrhagic and Collecting System Complications. Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Apr;196(4):935–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Littrup PJ, Jallad B, Vorugu V, Littrup G, Currier B, George M, et al. Lethal Isotherms of Cryoablation in a Phantom Study: Effects of Heat Load, Probe Size, and Number. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009 Oct;20(10):1343–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lu A, Daniel BL, Pauly JM, Butts Pauly K. Improved slice selection for R2* mapping during cryoablation with eddy current compensation. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jul;28(1):190–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bhagavatula SK, Chick JFB, Chauhan NR, Shyn PB. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay. Abdom Radiol. 2017 Feb;42(2):620–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farrell MA, Charboneau JW, Callstrom MR, Reading CC, Engen DE, Blute ML. Paranephric water instillation: a technique to prevent bowel injury during percutaneous renal radiofrequency ablation. Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(5):1315–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bodily KD, Atwell TD, Mandrekar JN, Farrell MA, Callstrom MR, Schmit GD, et al. Hydrodisplacement in the Percutaneous Cryoablation of 50 Renal Tumors. Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Mar;194(3):779–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arellano RS, Garcia RG, Gervais DA, Mueller PR. Percutaneous CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Efficacy of Organ Displacement by Injection of 5% Dextrose in Water Into the Retroperitoneum. Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Dec;193(6):1686–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kierans AS, Elazzazi M, Braga L, Leonardou P, Gerber DA, Burke C, et al. Thermoablative Treatments for Malignant Liver Lesions: 10-Year Experience of MRI Appearances of Treatment Response. Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Feb;194(2):523–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ahmed M, Solbiati L, Brace CL, Breen DJ, Callstrom MR, Charboneau JW, et al. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria—A 10-Year Update. Radiology. 2014 Oct;273(1):241–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldberg SN, Grassi CJ, Cardella JF, Charboneau JW, Dodd GD, Dupuy DE, et al. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria. Radiology. 2005 Jun;235(3):728–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Limanond P, Zimmerman P, Raman SS, Kadell BM, Lu DS. Interpretation of CT and MRI after radiofrequency ablation of hepatic malignancies. Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(6):1635–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sainani NI, Silverman SG, Tuna IS, Aghayev A, Shyn PB, Tuncali K, et al. Incidence and clinical sequelae of portal and hepatic venous thrombosis following percutaneous cryoablation of liver tumors. Abdom Radiol. 2016 May;41(5):970–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim AY, Rhim H, Park M, Lee MW, Kim Y-S, Choi D, et al. Venous Thrombosis After Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Dec;197(6):1474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chang IS, Rhim H, Kim SH, Kim Y, Choi D, Park Y, et al. Biloma Formation After Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Incidence, Imaging Features, and Clinical Significance. Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Nov;195(5):1131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kim SH, Lim HK, Choi D, Lee WJ, Kim SH, Kim MJ, et al. Changes in bile ducts after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: frequency and clinical significance. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183(6):1611–1617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fairchild AH, Tatli S, Dunne RM, Shyn PB, Tuncali K, Silverman SG. Percutaneous Cryoablation of Hepatic Tumors Adjacent to the Gallbladder: Assessment of Safety and Effectiveness. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014 Sep;25(9):1449–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nair S, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Obuchwski NA, vanSonnenberg E, Shankar S. Biochemical and hematologic alterations follwing percutaneous cryoablation of liver tumors: experience in 48 procedures. Radiology. 2008;16:90–5.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sainani NI, Gervais DA, Mueller PR, Arellano RS. Imaging After Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Tumors: Part 1, Normal Findings. Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Jan;200(1):184–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tatli S, Acar M, Silverman S. Percutaneous cryoablation: techniques and clinical applications. Diagn Interv Radiol [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2018 Jan 7]; Available from:
  57. 57.
    Wile GE, Leyendecker JR, Krehbiel KA, Dyer RB, Zagoria RJ. CT and MR Imaging after Imaging-guided Thermal Ablation of Renal Neoplasms. RadioGraphics. 2007 Mar;27(2):325–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gage AA, Baust J. Mechanisms of Tissue Injury in Cryosurgery. Cryobiology. 1998 Nov;37(3):171–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lim HK, Choi D, Lee WJ, Kim SH, Lee SJ, Jang H-J, et al. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Percutaneous Radio-frequency Ablation: Evaluation with Follow-up Multiphase Helical CT. Radiology. 2001 Nov;221(2):447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Okusaka T, Okada S, Ueno H, Ikeda M, Shimada K, Yamamoto J, et al. Satellite lesions in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma with reference to clinicopathologic features. Cancer. 2002 Nov 1;95(9):1931–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brillet P-Y, Paradis V, Brancatelli G, Rangheard A-S, Consigny Y, Plessier A, et al. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Before Liver Transplantation: A Prospective Study with Histopathologic Comparison. Am J Roentgenol. 2006 May;186(5_supplement):S296–305.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dromain C, de Baere T, Elias D, Kuoch V, Ducreux M, Boige V, et al. Hepatic Tumors Treated with Percutaneous Radio-frequency Ablation: CT and MR Imaging Follow-up. Radiology. 2002 Apr;223(1):255–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tatli S, Acar M, Tuncali K, Sadow CA, Morrison PR, Silverman SG. MRI assessment of percutaneous ablation of liver tumors: Value of subtraction images. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Feb;37(2):407–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Purandare NC, Rangarajan V, Shah SA, Sharma AR, Kulkarni SS, Kulkarni AV, et al. Therapeutic Response to Radiofrequency Ablation of Neoplastic Lesions: FDG PET/CT Findings. RadioGraphics. 2011 Jan;31(1):201–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shyn PB, Oliva MR, Shah SH, Tatli S, Catalano PJ, Silverman SG. MRI contrast enhancement of malignant liver tumours following successful cryoablation. Eur Radiol. 2012 Feb;22(2):398–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jaskolka JD, Asch MR, Kachura JR, Ho CS, Ossip M, Wong F, et al. Needle Tract Seeding after Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005 Apr;16(4):485–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Llovet JM, Vilana R, Brú C, Bianchi L, Salmeron JM, Boix L, et al. Increased risk of tumor seeding after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for single hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2003 Dec 30;33(5):1124–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Livraghi T, Solbiati L, Meloni MF, Gazelle GS, Halpern EF, Goldberg SN. Treatment of Focal Liver Tumors with Percutaneous Radio-frequency Ablation: Complications Encountered in a Multicenter Study. Radiology. 2003 Feb;226(2):441–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gervais DA, Arellano RS. Percutaneous Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Oct;197(4):789–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sainani NI, Gervais DA, Mueller PR, Arellano RS. Imaging After Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Tumors: Part 2, Abnormal Findings. Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Jan;200(1):194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lokken RP, Gervais DA, Arellano RS, Tuncali K, Morrison PR, Tatli S, et al. Inflammatory Nodules Mimic Applicator Track Seeding After Percutaneous Ablation of Renal Tumors. Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Oct;189(4):845–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Francica G, Marone G, Solbiati L, D’Angelo V, Siani A. Hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(6):926–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shankar S, vanSonnenberg E, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Morrison PR. Diagnosis and treatment of intrahepatic biloma complicating radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases. Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(2):475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Georgiades CS, Hong K, Bizzell C, Geschwind J-F, Rodriguez R. Safety and Efficacy of CT-guided Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008 Sep;19(9):1302–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Akahane M, Koga H, Kato N, Yamada H, Uozumi K, Tateishi R, et al. Complications of Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepato-cellular Carcinoma: Imaging Spectrum and Management. RadioGraphics. 2005;25(suppl_1):S57–68.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dunne RM, Shyn PB, Sung JC, Tatli S, Morrison PR, Catalano PJ, et al. Percutaneous treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: A comparison of the safety of cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation. Eur J Radiol. 2014 Apr;83(4):632–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Choi D, Lim HK, Kim MJ, Kim SJ, Kim SH, Lee WJ, et al. Liver abscess after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinomas: frequency and risk factors. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(6):1860–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Elias D, Di Pietroantonio D, Gachot B, Menegon P, Hakime A, de Baere T. Liver abscess after radiofrequency ablation of tumors in patients with a biliary tract procedure. Garoenterologie Clin Biol. 2006;30:823–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Welch BT, Schmitz JJ, Atwell TD, McGauvran AM, Kurup AN, Callstrom MR, et al. Evaluation of infectious complications following percutaneous liver ablation in patients with bilioenteric anastomoses. Abdom Radiol. 2017 May;42(5):1579–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa Ratanaprasatporn
    • 1
  • Nisha Sainani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeremy B. Duda
    • 1
  • Ayaz Aghayev
    • 1
  • Servet Tatli
    • 1
  • Stuart G. Silverman
    • 1
  • Paul B. Shyn
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of RadiologyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations