Performance of ultrasound for detection of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt dysfunction: a meta-analysis
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Although ultrasound has been widely used to evaluate transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) patency, several studies have reported conflicting data regarding its performance. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate performance of ultrasound for detection of TIPS dysfunction by performing a meta-analysis.
Literature search was performed for studies evaluating ultrasound for TIPS dysfunction, stenosis, and occlusion using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library through February 2019. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, log diagnostic odds ratio (LDOR), and area under curve (AUC) of summary receiver-operating characteristic were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed according to ultrasonographic criteria and type of stent.
In total, 21 studies were evaluated. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and LDOR of ultrasound for detection of TIPS dysfunction were 0.82 (0.67, 0.93), 0.58 (0.46, 0.70), and 1.77 (1.20, 2.35). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and LDOR for TIPS stenosis were 0.80 (0.69, 0.90), 0.80 (0.69, 0.91), and 2.83 (1.88, 3.78). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and LDOR for TIPS occlusion were 0.96 (0.92, 0.99), 1 (0.99, 1.00), and 6.28 (4.96, 7.60). AUCs of ultrasound for TIPS dysfunction, stenosis, and occlusion were 0.77, 0.86, and 0.95, respectively.
Although ultrasound had excellent performance for TIPS occlusion and acceptable performance for TIP stenosis, most studies utilized bare metal stent, and therefore, application to current practice is limited. Ultrasound for TIPS dysfunction in the setting of covered metal stent appeared to have acceptable sensitivity of 0.82, but limited specificity of 0.58 and low LDOR of 1.77. A new noninvasive tool is needed for detection of TIPS dysfunction in the era of covered metal stent.
KeywordsTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt Stents Doppler ultrasonography Cirrhosis Portal hypertension
The authors would like to thank Roxanne Cox, MLS, McGoogan of the Library of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center who provided advices and assisted in the literature search.
WM, HS, and PP participated in the study design. Data extraction was performed by WM and PP, while quality assessment was performed by ME and NW. TI performed statistical analyses. WM, JS, and AB participated in the manuscript preparation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This study was not supported by funding or grant. All authors have no financial disclosure.
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