Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis and urothelial cell carcinoma: rethinking the association
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To compare frequency of new and recurrent urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) among patients with and without pseudodiverticulosis on imaging.
This retrospective case–control study compared all 113 sequential patients with ureteral pseudodiverticulosis on radiographic urography between 1/1/2002 and 12/31/2012. Six patients were lost to follow-up. 107 patients without pseudodiverticulosis were matched by imaging modality, clinical indication, and tumor grade. Known UCC and primary outcome of new or recurrent UCC were determined through pathology on cystoscopy or clinical follow-up.
Nearly half of patients with pseudodiverticulosis had known UCC at the time of imaging (49/107, 46%). Mean cystoscopy follow-up was 7.0 and 4.6 years for pseudodiverticulosis cases with and without known UCC, respectively, and 7.5 and 7.3 years for controls, respectively. Mean clinic follow-up was 7.5 and 6.0 years for pseudodiverticulosis cases with and without known UCC, respectively, and 6.4 and 7.6 years for controls, respectively. Among patients with known UCC at the time of imaging, similar rates of recurrent UCC were demonstrated on follow-up among patients with pseudodiverticulosis (6/49, 12%) and without (7/49, 14%). Among patients with no known history of UCC at the time of imaging, no patients with pseudodiverticulosis developed UCC on follow-up and 5% (3/58) of patients without pseudodiverticulosis developed UCC.
Although half of patients with ureteral pseudodiverticulosis have a known diagnosis of UCC, the presence of pseudodiverticulosis did not signify an increased likelihood of developing new or recurrent UCC over the follow-up period.
KeywordsUreter Pseudodiverticulosis Urothelial cell carcinoma Retrograde pyelogram
Compliance with ethical standards
No funding for this study.
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
A waiver for informed consent was granted by the institutional IRB